Department of Psychology: Publications 2007

Torbjørn Rundmo

Rundmo, Torbjørn; Tharaldsen, J. E.; Olsen, E.. Associations between Risk Perception and Risk-taking behaviour. I: Risk, Reliability and Societal Safety, Volume 2: Thematic Topics. Leiden, Netherlands: Taylor & Francis 2007. ISBN 978-0-415-44784-3. s. 1631-1637

Størseth, Fred. Affective job insecurity and risk taking at work. International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management 2007;7(2):189-204

DOI: 10.1504/IJRAM.2007.011731

The purpose of the study was to investigate the affective side of job insecurity, and how it might influence risk taking at work. Two hypotheses were tested: (1) affective aspects of job insecurity, together with hazardous work arrangements, and overtime pressure influence risk taking behaviour. (2) Job satisfaction and work motivation mediate the association between affective job insecurity and risk taking behaviour. Data were obtained from a Norwegian transport company. A self-completion questionnaire survey was distributed to employees experiencing organisational change (N=1442). Affective job insecurity was positively related to risk taking behaviour. The same was the case for hazardous work arrangements and overtime pressure. Both job satisfaction and work motivation partly mediated these effects of background variables. Regarding job satisfaction, only the dimension tapping employee satisfaction with leadership and social conditions contributed significantly to risk taking. The importance of measuring the affective side of job insecurity as well as including organisational/management level factors when studying safety behaviour is discussed.

Torbjørn Rundmo

Rundmo, Torbjørn; Moen, Bjørg-Elin. Risk Sensitivity and Priority of Safety. I: Risk, Reliability and Societal Safety, Volume 2: Thematic Topics. Leiden, Netherlands: Taylor & Francis 2007. ISBN 978-0-415-44784-3. s. 1623-1629

Bjørg-Elin Moen

Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen. Fear and fitness revisited. Journal of Evolutionary Psychology 2007;5:105-117

Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair

Fears of specific and real dangers are adaptations. Hypophobia, a lack of adaptive aversive emotions in dangerous situations, is often maladaptive. Anxiety disorders also appear maladaptive, and many ethological suggestions about adaptive function are unconvincing from a clinical perspective. Modern and effective treatment (Cognitive Behavioural Therapy) is based on changing disorder specific cognitive and metacognitive processes. Earlier thinking on the adaptive function of different types of anxiety and the downplaying of the specificity of different anxiety disorders is challenged. A combination of the cognitive sciences Evolutionary Psychology and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy might be fruitful. Evolutionary Psychology may provide Cognitive Behavioural Therapy with a better understanding of the function of the mental mechanisms involved, while Cognitive Behavioural Therapy may provide Evolutionary Psychology with a better understanding of the proximate mechanisms of specific mental disorders.

Tore C. Stiles

Chioqueta, Andrea Pinto; Stiles, Tore C. Cognitive factors, engagement in sport, and suicide risk. Archives of Suicide Research 2007;11(4):375-390

DOI: 10.1080/13811110600897143

The aims of this study were to identify cognitive vulnerabilities and to examine the protective role of active engagement in sport in the development of (1) suicide ideation and (2) hopelessness. In Study 1,102 male military recruits were the participants. Scores on the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ-30), but not on the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS-A), predicted presence of suicide ideation three months later. The results of Study 2 with 84 university students showed that scores on the ATQ-30, but not on the DAS-A were significantly associated with hopelessness. Moreover, students actively engaged in sports exhibited less hopelessness. The findings suggest that active engagement in sports is strongly associated with negative automatic thoughts, suicidal thoughts, and hopelessness.

Chioqueta, Andrea Pinto; Stiles, Tore C. Dimensions of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS-A) and the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ-30) as cognitive vulnerability factors in the development of suicide ideation. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 2007;35:579-589

Tore C. Stiles

DOI: 10.1017/S1352465807003803

The investigation of factors that may render an individual vulnerable to the development of suicide ideation may provide some light on the etiology of suicidal behavior and consequently contribute to the prevention of suicide. Based on this idea, an examination of the relationship between the underlying dimensions of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS-A), the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ-30) and suicide ideation was conducted. The six DAS-A components and the two ATQ-30 components reported by Chioqueta and Stiles (2006a, 2006c) were among the variables employed in the present study. In a sample composed of 102 male military recruits, initially assessed at the Army School (Pretest) and re-tested 3 months later (Posttest), a series of multiple regression analyses were conducted. The results demonstrated that the two subscales of the ATQ-30 (Negative Self-Concept/Personal Maladjustment and Desire for Change/Negative Expectations), but none of the DAS-A subscales, predicted suicide ideation 3 months later. Thus, automatic thoughts reflecting ideas of negative self-concept, perceptions of personal maladjustment, thoughts of desire for change, and negative expectations seem to be more associated with suicide ideation than depressogenic beliefs.

Britt-Marie Drottz Sjøberg

Sjøberg, Britt-Marie Drottz. Risk Communication in Arenas for Risk Governance, ARGONA. I: Risk, Reliability and Societal Safety. Vol.I: Specialisation topics . London: Taylor & Francis 2007. ISBN 978-0-415-44786-7. s. 575-578

Sjøberg, Lennart. Emotions and risk perception. Risk Management: An International Journal 2007;9(4):223-237

Lennart Sjøberg

DOI: 10.1057/palgrave.rm.8250038

The role of emotions in risk perception has been held to be important, based mainly on findings in applications of the Psychometric Model and the notion of an "Affect heuristic". These conclusions are criticized because the work on "Dread" in the tradition of the Psychometric Model has been based mainly on items measuring severity of consequences. Only one emotion item was included. Furthermore, "affect" is a word denoting emotions but in the concrete applications to the "affect heuristic" studies have been made not of emotions, but of attitudes and evaluations. In the present paper, actual data on emotions are investigated and it is found that emotions do indeed play an important role in risk perception and related attitudes. In one study, it was found that interest in a hazard (a positive emotion) was positively correlated with perceived risk. Interest was an important explanatory factor in models of demand for risk mitigation. Much recent work on emotions and attitudes suggests a three-step process, where initial cognitive processing gives rise to emotions, which in turn guide the further, more elaborate, cognitive processing. The notion of the primacy of a primitive initial emotional reaction governing belief contents is rejected. Risk communication based on such a simplistic neurophysiological model is likely to fail.

Tore C. Stiles

Chioqueta, Andrea Pinto; Stiles, Tore C. The relationship between psychological buffers, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation - Identification of protective factors. Crisis 2007;28(2):67-73

DOI: 10.1027/0227-5910.28.2.67

In this study we examined the role of psychological buffers (life satisfaction, self-esteem, perception of family cohesion, and perception of social support) in the development of hopelessness and suicidal ideation. The participants were 314 university students, 71 males and 243 females, who were asked to complete a battery of instruments measuring the psychological buffers mentioned above. The results of a set of hierarchical multiple regression analyses suggested that life satisfaction and self-esteem are independent predictors of lower levels of hopelessness, while perception of social support seems to be the major predictor of lower levels of suicidal ideation independent of depression and hopelessness severity. Thus, hopelessness seems to be minimized by the level of life satisfaction and level of self-esteem exhibited by the individuals, while the key factor to the mitigation of suicidal ideas seems to be perception of social support.

Lundin Kvalem, Ingela; Wichstrøm, Lars. Ung i Norge – psykososiale utfordringer. Cappelen Akademisk Forlag 2007. ISBN 978-82-02-26288-4. 197 s.

Lars Wichstrøm

Hvordan forholder ungdom seg til at kroppen endres og modnes, til de mentale forandringene som gjør at de tenker på en annen måte, og til endringene i seksuelle følelser og atferd? Både tidsperioden og det samfunnet ungdom vokser opp i, vil påvirke deres utvikling, relasjoner, tilpasning og problemer.

Giæver, Fay. Understanding emotional responses to anticipated change: the case of introducing electronic care plans in hospitals. International Journal of Work Organisation and Emotion 2007;2(1):49-70

DOI: 10.1504/IJWOE.2007.013615

This study aimed to address the range and complexity of emotions involved in the anticipation of change at work through adopting a contextual approach to understanding emotions and change. A qualitative study was conducted to explore nurses' emotional responses towards the anticipated introduction of electronic care plans. Emotional responses revolved around three issues in particular: Envisioning the change process, meeting professional standards in the future, and everyday work situation following anticipated change. None of the respondents reported only negative emotion terms, and they both experienced and expected that their emotional experiences would continuously evolve over time.

Keith D. Munkejord

Munkejord, Keith David. Multiple Media Use in Organizations: Identifying Practices Leading to an Alignment Paradox. Journal of Information, Information Technology, and Organizations 2007;2:95-118

A case study was conducted in a department of a Fortune 500 company to explore multiple media practices. Existing research has been dominated by a focus on the use of single media, and the valuable insights and knowledge gained in this research largely ignore the characteristics and consequences of multiple media use in organizational settings. Three interrelated practices were identified as important for multiple media use patterns: media cycling practices, fluid interdependent media practices, and puzzle zone practices. Finally, an alignment paradox evolved, suggesting that the patterned use of multiple media produce diametrically opposed work practices that may significantly influence the core business.

Kropotov, Yury; Grin-Yatsenko, Vera A.; Ponomarev, Valery A.; Chutko, Leonid S.; Yakovenko, Elena A.; Nikishena, Inna S.. Changes in EEG Spectrograms, Event-Related Potentials and Event-Related Desynchronization Induced by Relative Beta Training in ADHD Children . Journal of Neurotherapy 2007;11(2):3-11

DOI: 10.1300/J184v11n02_02

Background. During the last three decades EEG-based biofeedback (neurofeedback) was used as an alternative treatment for reducing symptoms of ADHD. The goal of this study was to objectively assess the efficacy of biofeedback training by comparing spectrograms, ERPs and ERDs, measured before and after 20 sessions of neurotherapy in a group of ADHD children.

Method. Electroencephalogram (EEG), Event related potentials (ERPs) and event related synchronisation/desynchronisation (ERD/ERS) were recorded and computed in auditory GO/ NOGO task before and after 15-22 sessions of EEG biofeedback. Eighty-six ADHD children participated in the study. Each session consisted of 30 min of relative beta training. The patients were divided into two groups (good performers and poor performers) depending on their ability to elevate beta activity during sessions.

Results. Amplitude of late positive components of evoked potentials in response to NOGOstimuli increased, and event-related synchronisation in alpha frequency band measured at central areas decreased after the whole set of sessions of neurofeedback training in the group of good performers but did not change for the poor performers group. Evoked potential differences between postand pre-treatment conditions for good performers were distributed over frontal-central areas, reflecting activation of frontal cortical areas associated with beta training.

Conclusion. Relative beta training with electrodes located above the frontal areas was associated with an increase of the late positive NOGO component. This activation likely indicates recovery of normal functioning of the executive system.

Spada, Marcantonio M.; Zandvoort, Michelle; Wells, Adrian. Metacognitions in Problem Drinkers . Cognitive Therapy and Research 2007;31(5):709-716

DOI: 10.1007/s10608-006-9066-1

The present study examined metacognitions in problem drinkers and a community sample. A sample of 60 problem drinkers and 84 individuals from the general population were compared on the following measures: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire 30, Quantity Frequency Scale and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Mann–Whitney U-tests, logistic regression analysis and hierarchical regression analyses were performed on the data. Mann–Whitney U-tests revealed that metacognitions, anxiety, depression and drinking scores were significantly higher for problem drinkers than for the general population. The logistic regression analysis indicated that beliefs about cognitive confidence and beliefs about the need to control thoughts were independent predictors of a classification as a problem drinker over and above negative emotions. Finally, hierarchical regression analyses on the combined samples showed that beliefs about cognitive confidence, and beliefs about the need to control thoughts, independently predicted both alcohol use and problem drinking scores. These results add to the argument that metacognitive theory is relevant in understanding excessive and problematic alcohol use.

Spada, Marcantonio M.; Nikèeviã, Ana V.; Moneta, Giovanni B.; Wells, Adrian. Metacognition as a mediator of the relationship between emotion and smoking dependence . Addictive Behaviours 2007;32(10):2120-2129

DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2007.01.012

This study investigated the role of metacognition as a mediator of the relationship between emotion and smoking dependence. A sample of 104 smokers completed the following questionnaires: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 (MCQ-30), and Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Three dimensions of metacognition (positive beliefs about worry, negative beliefs about worry concerning uncontrollability and danger, and beliefs about cognitive confidence) were found to be positively and significantly correlated with smoking dependence. A positive and significant correlation was also observed between anxiety and depression on the one hand, and smoking dependence on the other. Structural equation modeling was used to test a mediational model in which emotion predicted metacognition which in turn predicted smoking dependence. The results supported the hypothesis that the relationship between emotion and smoking dependence is partially mediated by metacognition, suggesting that metacognitive theory may be relevant to understanding smoking dependence. The implications of these findings are discussed.

Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen. Følelsenes funksjon og krigerens mentalitet. I: Liv og lære i operative miljøer «Tøffe menn gråter!» : Fagbokforlaget 2007. ISBN 978-82-450-0693-3

Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair

Arnulf Kolstad

Hauge, Åshild Lappegard; Kolstad, Arnulf. Dwelling as an Expression of Identity. A Comparative Study Among Residents in High-Priced and Low-Priced Neighbourhoods in Norway. Housing, Theory and Society 2007;24(4):272-292

DOI: 10.1080/14036090701434318

This study explores people's thoughts about their dwellings as an expression of identity. The results are based on a survey (N = 560) and 18 qualitative interviews with residents in high-priced and low-priced neighbourhoods in one city in Norway. The informants perceived their dwellings and neighbourhoods as providing information about personality and taste, interests, life phase, social status and relationships. Their attitudes towards the communicative aspect of their environment can be divided into three categories: one group had not thought much about the issue, and did not care about how others read their dwelling or environment; another group was not very aware of the issue, but became interested in the topic when asked about it; and the last group was definitely concerned about the presentation of self through dwelling and neighbourhood, and talked spontaneously about it. The survey revealed that 40% of the respondents were aware/very much aware of their dwelling reflecting who they are, but only 19% thought it was important. Respondents in the high-priced neighbourhood were more aware of dwelling as personality than respondents in the lower-priced neighbourhood. Differences in attitudes were larger between age groups than between neighbourhoods. Younger to middle-aged respondents were more aware than older people of the communicative aspect of their environments. The results are discussed in relation to cohort, social identity, attitudes towards self-presentation and the sensitivity of the topic. The study demonstrates the value of qualitative methods in studying the communicative aspect of the physical environment.

Patrick A. Vogel

Hansen, Bjarne; Vogel, Patrick A.; Stiles, Tore C; Gøtestam, K Gunnar. The influence of comorbid GAD, panic disorder and personality disorders on the outcome of cognitive behavioral treatment of OCD. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy 2007;36(3):145-155

Tore C. Stiles

DOI: 10.1080/16506070701259374

This study examined co-morbid generalized anxiety disorder and/or panic disorder and personality disorders as predictors of treatment outcomes in adult outpatients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. The patients received exposure with response prevention (ERP) treatment with the addition of either elements of cognitive therapy (ERP+CT) or relaxation training (ERP+REL). It was hypothesized that the addition of cognitive interventions would yield better treatment outcomes for patients with co-morbid generalized anxiety disorder and/or panic disorder. It was also hypothesized that patients with any personality disorder would show less treatment gains in both conditions. Using intention-to-treat criteria, patients with generalized anxiety disorder and/or panic disorder co-morbidity showed less treatment gains at post-treatment across both treatment conditions. This group showed significantly more treatment gains in the ERP+CT condition at the post-treatment and the 12-month follow-up assessments compared with patients in the ERP+REL condition. However, this was not significant when comparing treatment completers. Patients with a co-morbid Cluster A or B personality disorder showed significantly less treatment gains in both treatment conditions at the 12-month follow-up assessment. Among treatment completers, patients with a Cluster C personality disorder showed significantly better outcomes at the post-treatment assessment in the ERP+REL treatment condition. These results, clinical implications, and the importance of further investigations are discussed.

Dankert Vedeler

Vedeler, Dankert. Dialogue and co-regulation: Using dialogical self terminology in the relational-historical approach. A commentary on Garvey & Fogel’s “Dialogical change processes, emotions, and the early emergence of self.” . International Journal for Dialogical Science 2007;2(1):77-91

The relational-historical approach to the study of mother-infant interaction is discussed in the light of the theories of Henri Wallon and Mikhail Bakhtin. The central question addresses the relevance of the concept of dialogue for this area of research. It is argued that an important common ground for Wallon and Bakhtin is the focus on the bodily origin of social interaction. The infant initiates emotional relationships through physical coregulation with persons and things. Differences in the infant’s behaviour toward persons and things justify a conceptualization of social coregulation as dialogue. The time dimension is very important to understand the significance of accumulated earlier experiences for the emergence of a dialogical self, also, and in particular, in infants. That is the essence of the relational-historical approach. In order to study development over time, thus conceived, the ”frame” concept is central. However, in order to be useful for observing development, the continuity of frames from one observation session to another is as important as changes and transitions.

Jordhøy, Marit S; Ringdal, Gerd Inger; Helbostad, Jorunn L.; Oldervoll, Line Merethe; Loge, Jon Håvard; Kaasa, Stein. Assessing physical functioning: a systematic review of quality of life measures developed for use in palliative care. Palliative Medicine 2007;21(8):673-682

Gerd Inger Ringdal

DOI: 10.1177/0269216307083386

Physical decline is experienced by all palliative care patients and affects most aspects of life. Physical functioning (PF) is therefore a crucial domain for quality of life (Qol) assessments. The purpose of this study was to review how PF assessments are performed in Qol instruments developed for palliative care Methods: For identification of instruments, Medline searches up to April 2005 were performed using the terms (palliative care OR end of life care OR terminal care) AND quality of life AND (assessment OR instrument OR questionnaire). A total of 1326 hits were screened. Named QoL instruments were extracted from 240 abstracts and 46 relevant reports. Items assessing PF were then identified and classified according to activity domains as described by the WHO International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health. Results: Of 224 different instruments detected, 39 were identified as developed for palliative care. Of these, 11 included original PF assessments. Two were comprehensive performance status measures made for staff assessment, 9 were multidimensional tools including 2—7 PF items. The content and phrasing of items varied considerably. All instruments included some aspects of self-care, whereas the coverage of mobility, domestic, work — and leisure activities was inconsistent. Interpretation: Despite its importance, PF assessment seems to be a minor part of palliative care QoL instruments. Clear definitions and conceptualization of PF are needed, as well as a consensus on relevant aspects to include in improved instruments. Performance scales already developed should be further explored with regard to content, validity and psychometric properties.

Per Øystein Saksvik

Saksvik, Per Øystein; Tvedt, Sturle Danielsen; Nytrø, Kjell; Andersen, Gunn Robstad; Andersen, Thale Kvernberg; Buvik, Marte Pettersen; Torvatn, Hans. Developing criteria for healthy organizational change. Work and stress 2007;21(3):243-263

Sturle D. Tvedt

DOI: 10.1080/02678370701685707

Kjell Nytrø

The objective of this study was to identify criteria for healthy change in organizations and to develop practical guidelines for intended change. We aimed to explore how change processes at the shop floor level can be better informed by consultants and labour inspectors. A total of 180 interviews were conducted with managers and employees in 90 units of public and private organizations in Norway. The interviews were analysed through four steps representing an expansion of grounded theory, and converted to qualitative analysis using QSR and N6 software. We found that organizational change processes were better managed by more attention to awareness of the local norms and diversity among employees in the perception and reactions to change efforts. An inspector or consultant should be aware of these phenomena in any change effort and tell the organization how to deal with them. The other three factors identified were early role clarification, manager availability, and using constructive conflicts to deal with change. They are all important coping mechanisms at the organizational level that will bring change processes onto a more optimal track if correctly managed. A healthy process empowers individuals instead of making them insecure and defensive in times of change. This will help them restore perceived control and promote job security, which benefits both them and the organization.

Gunn R. Andersen

Lars Wichstrøm

Hegna, Kristinn; Wichstrøm, Lars. Suicide attempts among Norwegian gay, lesbian and bisexual youths - General and specific risk factors. Acta Sociologica 2007;50(1):21-37

DOI: 10.1177/0001699307074880

The aim of the study was to identify the specific factors that affect the risk of attempted suicide in Norwegian gay, lesbian and bisexual (GLB) youths beyond the effect of general risk factors presumed to be of importance irrespective of sexual orientation. The national non-probability sample included 407 GLB youths aged between 16 and 25 years of age, among whom 26 per cent of both genders reported a previous suicide attempt. General risk factors for attempted suicide among GLB youths were: lack of parental contact, internalizing problems (depression/anxiety), low self-esteem, regular smoking and victimization. The following risk factors specific for GLB youths increased the risk of attempted suicide even when controlling for general risk factors: currently being in a steady heterosexual relationship, early heterosexual debut (<16), young age of coming out (<15), infrequent contact with heterosexual friends and openness to all heterosexual friends. For practitioners engaged in social work among young people in general or GLB youths in particular, these results show that while coming out is a vital aspect of sexual identity formation that enhances psychological well-being and should be celebrated, in another sense it is a serious stressor with potentially negative consequences unless a strong social support network is there to be relied upon.

Kolstad, Arnulf. Hvordan de fysiske omgivelser påvirker oss. Estetikk og velvære i helseinstitusjoner. Den norske tannlegeforenings tidende 2007;117:814-818

Arnulf Kolstad

Sanseinntrykkene er «råstoffet» for tanker og følelser. De bearbeides av allerede lagrede erfaringer, utløser assosiasjoner og påvirker velvære og helse. «Kvaliteten» på de visuelle sanseinntrykkene har betydning for måten vi oppfatter andre på og hva slags humør vi settes i. Vi bedømmer andre mennesker mer positivt i rom vi synes er vakre og kommer selv i bedre humør. Det får betydning også for vår somatiske helse, og er gunstig for blodtrykk, lymfe- og nervesystem. I helseinstitusjoner kan estetisk utforming, utsmykking og kunst bidra til redusert liggetid og bedre trivsel for både ansatte og pasienter. Dette slår ut i en mer positiv vurdering av behandling og helsepersonellets kvalifikasjoner, noe som er viktig for behandlingseffekten. Et institusjonsmiljø som oppfattes vakkert, ryddig og trygt vil bidra til redusert angst og større opplevd kontroll. Kunstnerisk utsmykking kan virke som distraksjon og lede tankene vekk fra sykdom og kroppslig forfall. Også venterommet, som gir det viktige førsteinntrykket som all senere informasjon tolkes i lyset av, bør utformes med omhu ettersom det oppfattes som tegn på kvaliteten på tannbehandlingen ut fra teorien om evalueringskonstans.

Kirsten Rasmussen

Almvik, Roger; Woods, Phil; Rasmussen, Kirsten. Assessing risk for imminent violence in the elderly: the Brøset Violence Checklist. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 2007(22):862-867

DOI: 10.1002/gps.1753

Objective: The Brøset Violence Checklist (BVC) assesses confusion, irritability, boisterousness, verbal threats, physical threats and attacks on objects as either present or absent. It is hypothesised that an individual displaying two or more of these behaviours is more likely to be violent in the next twenty-four hour period. This study aims to test the validity of the instrument in geriatric settings and to report on the predictive value of an easy-to-use risk assessment instrument.

Method: Eight thousand eight hundred and thirty-five BVC observations were completed in two psychogeriatric wards (n = 42 patients) and two special care units for patients with dementia (n = 40 residents). To measure violent incidents the study group was monitored using the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised (SOAS-R).

Results: This study disclosed that patients in geriatric wards and residents in nursing homes who are aggressive have higher BVC scores than the non-violent subjects indicating that the BVC does predict violent episodes in these settings.

Conclusion: From a clinical perspective, it is most important that a prediction aid has good sensitivity, so that most cases are detected and have a high negative predictive value so that most non-cases on the measure are indeed non-cases. Our results indicate that the BVC was able to achieve this goal.

Hans M. Nordahl

Nordahl, Hans Morten; Stiles, Tore C. Personality styles in patients with fibromyalgia, major depression and healthy controls. Annals of General Hospital Psychiatry 2007;6(9)

Tore C. Stiles

DOI: 10.1186/1744-859X-6-9

Background: The fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is suggested to be a manifestation of depression or affective spectrum disorder. We measured the cognitive style of patients with FMS to assess personality styles in 44 patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) by comparing them with 43 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 41 healthy controls (HC).

Methods: Personality styles were measured by the Sociotropy and Autonomy Scale (SAS) and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS). The Structured Clinical interview for DSM Axis I was applied to Axis I disorders, while the Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure depression severity.

Results: Patients with FMS in general have a sociotropic personality style similar to patients with MDD, and different from HC, but FMS patients without a lifetime history of MDD had a cognitive personality style different from patients with MDD and similar to HC.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that a depressotypic personality style is related to depressive disorder, but not to FMS.

Gråwe, Rolf W; Hagen, Roger; Espeland, Bente; Mueser, Kim. The Better Life Program: Effects of group skills training for persons with severe mental illness and substance use disorders. Journal of Mental Health 2007;16(5):625-634

Roger Hagen

DOI: 10.1080/09638230701494886

Objectives: Despite the widespread use of group interventions for treating dual disorders, few standardized programs have been empirically validated. This study evaluated a manualized group skills training intervention for clients with dual disorders, the Better Life Program, in order to determine its feasibility and changes in substance abuse and mental health outcomes.

Method: Patients with dual disorders at nine centres in Norway participated in a pilot study using a within-subjects pre- and post test design. The program required an average of 37 sessions to complete and was provided as a supplement to standard mental health care. The aim of the program is to reduce substance misuse through providing information, motivational enhancement, skills training to develop rewarding relationships, relapse prevention, and establishing healthy leisure activities.

Results: Among the 82 patients who began treatment, 63 (83%) completed it. Treatment completers showed significant reductions in substance misuse and improvement in global functioning, but did not change in general symptom distress.

Conclusions: This pilot study supports the feasibility of the Better Life Program, and suggests that it may improve substance misuse and mental health outcomes. Further research is warranted to evaluate the effects of this program using controlled research designs.

Trude Reinfjell

Reinfjell, Trude; Lofstad, Grete Elisabeth; Veenstra, Marijke; Vikan, Arne; Diseth, Trond H.. Health-related quality of life and intellectual functioning in children in remission from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Acta Paediatrica 2007;96(9):1280-1285

G. Elisabeth Lofstad

DOI: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2007.00383.x

Arne Vikan

Aim: To evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and intellectual functioning of children in remission from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Methods: Children and adolescents treated for ALL (n = 40; mean age 11.8 years, range 8.5–15.4) and healthy controls (n = 42; mean age 11.8, range 8.11–15.0) were assessed through a cross-sectional approach using the Pediatric Quality of Life inventory (PedsQL™) 4.0 and the Wechsler Intelligent Scale for children-III (WISC-III).

Results: Children and adolescents treated for ALL reported on average significantly lower HRQOL compared to healthy controls: the mother's proxy-report showed significantly lower HRQOL for their children, as did the father's proxy-report, measured by the PedsQL™ 4.0 Total Scale and Psychosocial Health Scale. Intellectual functioning as measured by the WISC-III Full Scale IQ was below that of the control group, but still within the normal range.

Conclusions: Significant differences found between children treated for ALL and their control group for the PedsQL Psychosocial Health Scale may indicate that the complex illness-treatment experience can make children more vulnerable with regard to psychosocial sequels, in spite of otherwise satisfactory physical and intellectual functioning. Follow-up programs that target the psychosocial health of children in remission from ALL should be implemented.

Birthe Loa Knizek

Knizek, Birthe Loa; Hjelmeland, Heidi Marie. A Theoretical Model for Interpreting Suicidal Behaviour as Communication. Theory & Psychology 2007;17(5):697-720

DOI: 10.1177/0959354307081625

Theoretical publications have been relatively few and far between in suicidology. This paper is a contribution to the theoretical development of this field. A model of suicidal behaviour as communication (MoSBaC) is elaborated through a combination of Scandinavian theories within the framework of communication theory and semiotics. The model is functional as it can be used as a tool to analyse both verbal and non-verbal data. It is also flexible in the sense that a variety of qualitative data can be analysed systematically by this model. The typology of the model also is suitable for quantitative approaches. The scientific and multidisciplinary grounds on which a model should be built, what requirements it has to meet, as well as the methodological consequences of this, are also discussed.

Solbjør, Marit; Østerlie, Wenche; Skolbekken, John-Arne; Sætnan, Ann Rudinow; Forsmo, Siri. Focus Groups in a Medicine-Dominated Field: Compromises or Quality Improvements?. International Journal of Qualitative Methods 2007;6(3):45-56

John-Arne Skolbekken

Mammography screening has traditionally been viewed as a field for medical research. The medical science discourse, however, is highly quantitative, and its claims for validity somewhat opposed to those of qualitative research. To communicate research in a cross-disciplinary field, it is necessary to adapt one’s research to several paradigms. The authors conducted focus group interviews with women due to be screened in a national breast cancer screening program. Their prospective design, both strategic and random sampling, and free discussions during focus groups are all questions of satisfying a medical science discourse in the frames of qualitative research. Focus group research showed itself adaptable through the data collection phase in a cross-disciplinary research project on mammography screening.

Ingunn Hagen

Hagen, Ingunn. "We cannot just sit the whole day and watch TV" Negotiations concerning media use among youngsters and their parents. Young Nordic Journal of Youth Research 2007;15(4):369-393

DOI: 10.1177/110330880701500403

Media use is often a source of negotiations between children and their parents. Children's and young people's ideas about how much and what they want to watch on TV may differ from those of their parents. In addition, there might be disagreements in the family regarding who should use the computer and for what purpose. With new media like cable TV and computers/Internet increasingly available to modern families, there is intensified public pressure on parents to monitor and regulate their children's media use. The purpose of this article is to discuss questions related to these negotiations and regulations.

Jamtøy, Ann Iren; Hagen, Ingunn. Iscenesatt politikk - strategier for å lage underholdende TV. I: Den medialiserte politikken. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget 2007. ISBN 978-82-15-01063-2. s. 147-176

Ingunn Hagen

Hvilke strategier benytter fjernsynskanalene NRK og TV2 for å få det politiske stoffet til å bli underholdende TV? I dette kapitlet ser vi på hvordan iscenesettelse av politikk på fjernsyn ofte handler om å skape underholdende programmer med stor seerappell. De konsesjonsbelagte allmennkringkasterne lever i spenningen mellom å bidra til den politiske offentligheten og å oppnå publikumsoppslutning. Hvordan løser de dette dilemmaet i praksis? Gjennom analyse av ulike iscenesettelsesstrategier studerer vi hvordan og i hvilken grad NRK og TV2 har lyktes med å forene målet om å underholde med målet om å formidle politikk.

Ute Gabriel

Gabriel, Ute Barbara; Banse, Rainer; Hug, Florian. The prediction of helping behaviour by implicit attitudes and the motivation to control prejudiced reactions. British Journal of Social Psychology 2007;46(2):363-382

DOI: 10.1348/014466606X120400

The role of individual differences in implicit attitudes toward homosexuals and motivation to control prejudiced reactions (MCPR) in predicting private and public helping behaviour was investigated. After assessing the predictor variables, 69 male students were informed about a campaign of a local gay organization. They were provided with an opportunity to donate money and sign a petition in the presence (public setting) or absence (private setting) of the experimenter. As expected, more helping behaviour was shown in the public than in the private setting. But while the explicit cognitive attitude accounted for helping behaviour in both settings, an implicit attitude x MCPR interaction accounted for additional variability of helping in the public setting only. Three different mediating processes are discussed as possible causes of the observed effects.

Ringdal, Gerd Inger; Ringdal, Kristen; Jordhøy, Marit S; Kaasa, Stein. Does social support from family and friends work as a buffer against reactions to stressful life events such as terminal cancer?. Palliative and Supportive Care 2007;5:61-69

Gerd Inger Ringdal

DOI: 10.1017/S1478951507070083

Objective: To examine the relationship between social support and emotional functioning and stress reactions. Our hypothesis is that patients who reported a high degree of social support will experience better emotional functioning and less serious stress reactions than patients with a low degree of social support.

Method: The sample was comprised of 434 patients at the Palliative Medicine Unit (PMU), University Hospital of Trondheim in Norway. The patients completed a questionnaire monthly including questions about social support from the MacAdam's Scale, subjective stress measured by the Impact of Event Scale (IES), and emotional functioning measured by the subscale in the EORTC QLQ-30.

Results: Although our hypothesis was not supported at the baseline assessment, it was supported at the second assessment, 2 months later. Patients with high social support reported better emotional functioning and less serious stress reactions, in terms of lower scores on the IES avoidance subscale, than patients with a low degree of social support. Significance of the results: The mixed findings may indicate that social support has only small effects on emotional functioning and stress reactions. Our results on the second assessment indicate, however, that social support might work as a buffer against reactions toward external stressful events such as terminal cancer.

Bjørg Elin Moen

Moen, Bjørg Elin. Determinants of safety priorities in transport - The effect of personality, worry, optimism, attitudes and willingness to pay. Safety Science 2007;45(8):848-863

DOI: 10.1016/j.ssci.2006.08.020

Much research within risk has investigated risk perception and how risk behaviour is understood by the public. One goal of risk research is to understand how people perceive and interpret risk to facilitate safe behaviour. This is seen as important for many different reasons, one being because policy measures might be more effective when they address and understand individual differences in beliefs and perceptions of a target group (Steg, L., Sievers,I., 2000. Cultural theory and individual perceptions of environmental risks. Environment and Behavior 32(2), 250-269). The main aim of this study was to investigate what is most important in regard to safety priorities. Three personality assets - anxiety, excitement-seeking and trust - were first examined. Further factors were driver optimism, worrying about transport risks, willingness to pay to increase safety, and negative attitudes toward traffic rules (as a driver). The results are based upon two questionnaire surveys carried out among a representativ esample of the Norwegian public in 2004. The results showed that worry was the most important predictor of safety priorities. In addition, negative attitudes towards rules were also found to have an impact on priority. The proposed model explained 44% of the variance of safety priority. This knowledge gives additional information to improve the success of interventions because it will develop the ability to target those who consider safety to be of low priority and guide them to modify their attitudes. This may in turn increase their value of safety.

Ringdal, Gerd Inger. Psykologiske perspektiver på kreft. Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening 2007;44(6):722-723

Gerd Inger Ringdal

Omfanget av kreft er økende. Antallet som lever med kreft over lengre tid stiger, og antallet som får kreft er ifølge Kreftregisteret (2006) forventet å øke med 20 prosent frem mot 2020. Rundt 1955 var det nesten like mange kvinner som menn som fikk kreft. Etter år 2000 er forekomsten doblet hos menn og økt med så mye som 70 prosent hos kvinner. Økt levealder i befolkningen må tillegges noe av skylden for økningen, siden risikoen for å få en kreftsykdom i løpet av livet øker jo eldre en blir. Fire av ti nordmenn vil få kreft en gang i livet. En av ti menn vil få prostatakreft, og hver tolvte kvinne vil få brystkreft. De fire vanligste kreftformene, prostata, bryst, kolon og lungekreft, utgjør over halvparten av alle krefttilfeller i Norge i dag. Samlet sett for alle aldersgrupper dør en av fire av en kreftsykdom. Omtrent 170 000 mennesker lever med kreft i Norge, og enda flere er pårørende. Den store utbredelsen av kreft tilsier at det i de fleste familier vil være medlemmer som før eller siden vil bli rammet av kreft.

Roger Hagen

Hagen, Roger; Berge, Torkil; Gråwe, Rolf W. Towards a new understanding of psychosis. Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening 2007;44(5):522-523

Historically, we distinguish between three paradigms in our understanding of psychosis (Morrison, Renton, Dunn, Williams, & Bentall, 2004). The illness paradigm was introduced by Kraepelin at the beginning of the twentieth century. A clear distinction was drawn between normality and abnormality, and the cause of a certain number of diagnosable mental illnesses was understood as inherited brain disorders. The second paradigm is called the stress vulnerability model: biologically predisposed individuals may become psychotic if they are exposed to stressing life experiences. The various disorders, for example schizophrenia, are thought to lie along a continuum with normal behaviour and experiences, and there is a possibility that one can make therapeutic change by influencing the environment and strengthening the person's feeling of coping with the psychotic disorder. The third paradigm is the symptom-focused paradigm. Here each single symptom is emphasized, for example voice-hearing, delusions/unusual assumptions and depression, rather than using broad diagnostic categories. One is concerned with the possibility of coping with and understanding the symptoms and the ability to be able to function socially and professionally, more than curing the disorder as such.

Kornør, Hege; Nordvik, Hilmar. Five-factor model personality traits in opioid dependence. BMC Psychiatry 2007;7

Hilmar Nordvik

DOI: 10.1186/1471-244X-7-37

BACKGROUND: Personality traits may form a part of the aetiology of opioid dependence. For instance, opioid dependence may result from self-medication in emotionally unstable individuals, or from experimenting with drugs in sensation seekers. The five factor model (FFM) has obtained a central position in contemporary personality trait theory. The five factors are: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. Few studies have examined whether there is a distinct personality pattern associated with opioid dependence.

METHODS: We compared FFM personality traits in 65 opioid dependent persons (mean age 27 years, 34% females) in outpatient counselling after a minimum of 5 weeks in buprenorphine replacement therapy, with those in a non-clinical, age- and sex-matched sample selected from a national database. Personality traits were assessed by a Norwegian version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R), a 240-item self-report questionnaire. Cohen's d effect sizes were calculated for the differences in personality trait scores.

RESULTS: The opioid-dependent sample scored higher on Neuroticism, lower on Extraversion and lower on Conscientiousness (d = -1.7, 1.2 and 1.7, respectively) than the controls. Effects sizes were small for the difference between the groups in Openness to experience scores and Agreeableness scores.

CONCLUSION: We found differences of medium and large effect sizes between the opioid dependent group and the matched comparison group, suggesting that the personality traits of people with opioid dependence are in fact different from those of non-clinical peers.

Arne Vikan

Endrerud, Marianne Skogstrøm; Vikan, Arne. Five to seven year old children's strategies for regulating anger, sadness, and fear. Nordic Psychology 2007;59(2):127-134

83 children from kindergarten and primary school were asked to tell what they would do to stop being angry, sad, or frightened. Their proposals were conceived as emotion regulation strategies, and the great majority both of five and seven year old children's responses (80.5% and 88.1 %, respectively) could be classified into one of four categories. The most frequent regulation strategy category was social interaction (e.g. "being with someone"), which comprised about 40% of responses in both age groups. Strategy frequencies did not sustain an expectation based on differential emotions theory that results should show variation with emotion type.

Sjøberg, Lennart. The distortion of beliefs in the face of uncertainty. International Journal of Management and Decision Making 2007;8:1-29

Lennart Sjöberg

Judgements and beliefs often are distorted. They are affected by underlying values and reflect strong tendencies toward wishful thinking. In action, biased thinking may or may not be detrimental, and there is a very delicate balance to keep between the need to motivate oneself for forceful action, and to keep a realistic view of the possibilities of success. People encounter problems, calling for thought and the formation of constructs, only rather rarely, but when they do they tend to be in an unpleasant emotional state. Uncertainty is one such state, in which one encounters difficult problems and expects little success.

Arnulf Kolstad

Kolstad, Arnulf. Helbredende kunst - finnes det? Betydningen av utsmykking og estetikk i helseinstitusjoner. Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening 2007;44(8):991-994

Hva skal hensikten være med å «forskjønne» et sykehus? Dette er et spørsmål jeg skal reflektere over i denne artikkelen. Ved å vise at de fysiske og estetiske omgivelsene virker inn på sinnstilstand og helse, vil jeg argumentere for at det på helseinstitusjoner er særlig viktig med tiltalende miljø der pasienter, pårørende og ansatte opplever å bli tatt vare på. Kunst kan bidra til dette. Men ikke all slags kunst og utsmykking. Derfor må vi også stille spørsmålet om hva slags utsmykking, eller sagt på en annen måte: Hva skal kunsten i et sykehus «gjøre» med dem som er der, hvilke følelser og tanker skal utløses hos dem som opplever bygget og utsmykkingen?

Corsaro, William A.; Johannesen, Berit Overå. The creation of new cultures in peer interaction. I: The cambridge handbook of sociocultural psychology: Cambridge University Press 2007. ISBN 978-0-521-67005-0. s. 444-459

Berit O. Johannesen

In sociology and anthropology a new field of childhood studies has emerged in contrast to what is known traditionally as socialization. By shifting the focus, we can see how children contribute to cultural reproduction and change. In our work we have offered the concept of interpretive reproduction.
Reproduction calls attention to the fact that children do not simply internalize society, but actively contribute to culture and cultural change.

Truls Ryum

Ryum, Truls; Stiles, Tore C; Vogel, Patrick A.. Effektivitet av psykoterapeutisk behandling gjort av viderekommende studenter. Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening 2007;44(8):1005-1011

Tore C. Stiles

Patrick A. Vogel

Det er viktig å dokumentere at behandlingen psykologistudenter gir, er god og forsvarlig. Hvilket utbytte opplever klientene i ordinær praksis?

Alapack, Richard Joseph. Love's Pivotal Relationships: The Chum, First Love, Outlaw and the Intimate Partner. Bloomington, Indiana: AuthorHouse 2007. ISBN 978-1-4343-1904-3. 218 s.

Richard Joseph Alapack

Tucked within this volume are heartlines, woven equally of two types of tough yet tender threads: tales and thoughts about loving and longing. The weave creates soul stories about pivotal relationships: one's chum, first love, outlaw, and the intimate partner. The blend of stories and ideas communicates what happens "on the ground" and in the time of daily life. What belongs together is bound together: experience-reflection, meaning-action, smiles and tears. These relationships concern us all. Within them, we experience life's most important, validating, and memorable "moments."

Trude Reinfjell

Reinfjell, Trude; Diseth, Trond H.; Vikan, Arne. Barn og kreft: Barns tilpasning til og forståelse av alvorlig sykdom . Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening 2007;44(6):724-734

Arne Vikan

Hvilke faktorer er spesielt betydningsfulle for å fremme barns forståelse og tilpasning til alvorlig sykdom? Hvordan kan dette vektlegges i klinisk praksis?

Øyvind Kvello

Kvello, Øyvind. Utredning av atferdsvansker, omsorgssvikt og mishandling. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget 2007. ISBN 9788215009230. 455 s.

With this book the author gives an overview of behaviour problems (oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder), child abuse and neglect. Checklists for clinicans over risk and protective factors are included - both for the development of mental and social problems and how these factors predict outcomes when children have mental disorders. Topics are: Parenting styles, mental disorders and parenting, observations of parent-child-interactions, how domestic violence, drug and alcohol abuse affects children, physical and sexual abuse as well as different forms of neglect. The book presents an overview of evidence-based treatments for abuse, neglect and behaviour problems.

Austad, Hanne; van der Meer, Audrey. Prospective dynamic balance control in healthy children and adults. Experimental Brain Research 2007;181(2):289-295

Audrey van der Meer

DOI: 10.1007/s00221-007-0932-1

Balance control during gait initiation was studied using center of pressure (CoP) data from force plate measurements.

Bjørkli, Cato Alexander; Øvergård, Kjell Ivar; Røed, Bjarte Knappen; Hoff, Thomas. Control Situations in High Speed Craft Operation. Cognition, Technology, Work 2007;9(2):67-80

DOI: 10.1007/s10111-006-0042-z

The control situation framework presented by Petersen (Cogn Technol Work 6(4):266–274, 2004) is elaborated upon in the context of military high-speed craft navigation. An observational study was done on a military navigational exercise in Indre Folda, a stretch of particularly demanding confined waters in Norway. The concept of control strategies is presented as a term related to how navigators choose to take out the control possibilities present in the system. Control actions are viewed as actions that fix the control demands and control possibilities over longer time-scales. Control strategies are different from control actions in that they continuously alter the control demands and control possibilities through its execution.

Ute Gabriel

Gabriel, Ute Barbara; Gassmann, Sonya; Locher, Ruth. Geschlechtsunterschiede bei der moralischen Beurteilung häuslicher Gewalt. Trauma & Gewalt 2007;1(2):42-52

Employing a fictitious case scenario it was investigated whether the often reported finding that domestic violence by a female perpetrator is perceived as less severe than domestic violence by a male perpetrator can be ascribed to varying attribution processes as well as ingroup favoritism. A total of 128 students of the University of Bern were presented with scenarios depicting an abusive interaction between a heterosexual couple and afterwards rated the incident. In one version of the scenario the woman became the victim of the assault by the man, in the other version the man became the victim of the woman’s assault. The incident was written either from the victim’s or from the perpetrator’s perspective. The female perpetrator was less harshly evaluated than the male perpetrator. Contrary to the notion of ingroup favoritism, this held especially true for male respondents.

Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen. Statsvitenskap og evolusjonspsykologi: På tide å inkludere studiet av menneskets biologiske natur?. Norsk Statsvitenskapelig Tidsskrift 2007;23(1):54-75

Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair

Political science has, as a field, long been sceptical to the application of evolutionary theory to the understanding of human nature, behaviour and society. The result is a lack of understanding of modern evolutionary theory and a reflexive dismissal of the relevance of evolutionary psychology. This might be limiting to Political Science and research, as biological underpinnings of human nature, and thus also politics and societies, are ever more accepted among both mainstream life science as well as the social sciences, especially psychology. The current paper provides a short introduction to evolutionary psychology. Next possible reasons for Political Science’s dismissal of evolutionary perspectives are discussed, followed by examples of possibly relevant evolutionary psychology research (nutrition and environmental toxins, race perception, and war). This is an invitation to Political Science to contribute to future evolutionary studies of human political and social nature.

Richard Joseph Alapack

Almerud, Sofia; Alapack, Richard Joseph; Fridlund, Bengt; Ekebergh, Margaretha. Of vigilance and invisibility - Being a patient in technologically intense environments. Nursing in Critical Care 2007;12(3):151-158

DOI: 10.1111/j.1478-5153.2007.00216.x

Equipment and procedures developed during the past several decades have made the modern intensive care unit (ICU) the hospital’s most technologically advanced environment. In terms of patient care, are these advances unmitigated gains? This study aimed to develop a knowledge base of what it means to be critically ill or injured and cared for in technologically intense environments. A lifeworld perspective guided the investigation. Nine unstructured interviews with intensive care patients comprise its data. The qualitative picture uncovered by a phenomenological analysis shows that contradiction and ambivalence characterized the entire care episode. The threat of death overshadows everything and perforates the patient’s existence. Four inter-related constituents further elucidated the patients’ experiences: the confrontation with death, the encounter with forced dependency, an incomprehensible environment and the ambiguity of being an object of clinical vigilance but invisible at the personal level. Neglect of these issues lead to alienating ‘moments’ that compromised care. Fixed at the end of a one-eyed clinical gaze, patients described feeling marginalized, subjected to rituals of power, a stranger cared for by a stranger. The roar of technology silences the shifting needs of ill people, muffles the whispers of death and compromises the competence of the caregivers. This study challenges today’s caregiving system to develop double vision that would balance clinical competence with a holistic, integrated and comprehensive approach to care. Under such vision, subjectivity and objectivity would be equally honoured, and the broken bonds re-forged between techne, ‘the act of nursing’, and poesis, ‘the art of nursing’.

Øvergård, Kjell Ivar; Fostervold, Knut Inge; Bjelland, Hans Vanhauwaert; Hoff, Thomas. Knobology in use: an experimental evaluation of ergonomics recommendations. Ergonomics 2007;50(5):694-705

DOI: 10.1080/00140130601168046

The scientific basis for ergonomics recommendations for controls has usually not been related to active goal-directed use. The present experiment tests how different knob sizes and torques affect operator performance. The task employed is to control a pointer by the use of a control knob, and is as such an experimentally defined goal-directed task relevant to machine systems in general. Duration of use, error associated with use (overshooting of the goal area) and movement reproduction were used as performance measures. Significant differences between knob sizes were found for movement reproduction. High torques led to less overshooting as opposed to low torques. The results from duration of use showed a tendency that the differences between knob sizes were reduced from the first iteration to the second iteration. The present results indicate that the ergonomically recommended ranges of knob sizes might differently affect operator performance.

Hans Morten Nordahl

Nordahl, Hans Morten; Ingul, Jo Magne; Nordvik, Hilmar; Wells, Adrian. Does maternal psychopathology discriminate between children with DSM-IV generalised anxiety disorder or oppositional defiant disorder? The predictive validity of maternal axis I and axis II psychopathology. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2007;16:87-95

Hilmar Nordvik

DOI: 10.1007/s00787-006-0578-8

What dimensions of maternal psychopathology predict internalising or externalising disorder in children? We conducted a study of maternal axis I and axis II psychopathology in a group of children 8–12 years of age with Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and non-patient controls (NC). By using Multigroup Discriminant Analyses (MDA) on three groups of children (N = 85) and measures of axis I and axis II psychopathology of their mothers, we attempted to discriminate between these groups on a data driven basis. Two separate MDA were computed, one based on maternal axis I disorders, and one based on maternal axis II disorders. The results demonstrated that maternal symptomatic and personality psychopathology was differentially related to childhood anxiety or behavioural disorders. Mothers of children with ODD were characterised by more negative emotions and detached personality styles, whereas mothers of children with GAD seemed to be more somatic preoccupied, controlling and overprotective.

Mjåvatn Høie, Magnhild; Sjøberg, Britt-Marie Drottz. Forbannede elskede barn. Narkotikamisbruk sett i lys av pårørendes erfaringer. Oslo: Cappelen Akademisk Forlag 2007. ISBN 978-82-02-26984-5. 176 s.

Britt-Marie Drottz Sjøberg

Forbannede, elskede barn setter søkelys på foreldre og nære pårørende av narkotikamisbrukere. Pårørende er kanskje i enda større grad enn misbrukere en forsømt gruppe i hjelpeapparatet. Bokas første del formidler pårørendes erfaringer direkte og uten omskrivninger.

Arne Vikan

Vikan, Arne; Camino, Cleonice; Biaggio, Angela; Nordvik, Hilmar. Endorsement of the New Ecological Paradigm. A Comparison of Two Brazilian Samples and One Norwegian Sample. Environment and Behavior 2007;39(2):217-228

Hilmar Nordvik

DOI: 10.1177/0013916506286946

Results from 240 students (120 each from Brazil and Norway) on the 15-item revised New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) show higher endorsement of the ecological paradigm from the Brazilians; suggestions are that this relates to cultural variables rather than to technological development variables. There is no consistent relationship between scores on the NEP and scores from tests of justice based and care based morality, gender roles, or cultural orientation. Alphas, inter-item correlations, and factor analysis show much variation between the samples, but the relative ranking of items show very high agreement.

Oltedal, Sigve; Rundmo, Torbjørn. Using cluster analysis to test the cultural theory of risk perception. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 2007;10:254-262

Torbjørn Rundmo

DOI: 10.1016/j.trf.2006.10.003

The purpose of the present investigation was to examine if different groups of individuals with similarities in personality and cultural characteristics perceive transport risks differently. The respondents were a representative sample of the Norwegians public (n = 1687). Cluster analysis [Everitt, B. S., Landau, S., & Leese, M. (2001). Cluster analysis. London: Arnold] was applied to identify the groups. There were significant differences in transport risk perception between members of different clusters. However, members with different worldviews did not perceive risk according to the patterns described by cultural theory [Douglas, M., & Wildavsky, A. (1982). Risk and culture. Berkely, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press] and the relations between culture and risk perception seemed somewhat sporadic and unsystematic. Hence the conclusion that there are other factors more important to transport risk perception than the included cultural- and personality characteristics, was supported.

Torbjørn Rundmo

Rundmo, Torbjørn; Iversen, Hilde Karin. Is job insecurity a risk factor in occupational health and safety?. International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management 2007;7(2):165-179

Hilde Iversen

The main aim of the present study was to examine how job insecurity influences job satisfaction as well as on-the-job risk behaviour. An additional aim was to analyse how risk perception affects the associations between job insecurity, job dissatisfaction and behaviour. The results of the study are based on a self-completion questionnaire survey carried out among empoyees experiencing organisational change and downsizing in the UK and the Nordic Division of a company manufacturing chemical products (N=254). The company is one of the world's largest industrial gas suppliers. Job insecurity was significantly associated with job dissatisfaction. The more insecure the employees reported to be, the more job dissatisfaction was also reported. Job dissatisfaction was also related to on-the-job risk behaviour. Employees who were dissatisfied with the working condition reported on-the-job risk behaviour more frequently compared to those who were satisfied.

Oddfrid Skorpe Tennfjord

Tennfjord, Oddfrid Skorpe; Rundmo, Torbjørn. Risk perception and worry related to adolescents' judgement of three types of risk. Journal of Risk Research 2007;10(1):67-84

Torbjørn Rundmo

DOI: 10.1080/13669870601054886

The core aim of this study was to examine determinants of anticipated worry related to three types of risk among adolescents. The participants were Norwegian high-school students aged 15–19 years (n=5335). They were students at 6 high schools and a total of 15 randomly selected school classes participated in the study. All the students were asked to fill in a self-completion questionnaire. The response rate was 100percent. The participants were shown three video sequences of three-minute conversations between a person and a listener discussing three risk sources, which each had developed into a problem (drug use, depression, and sexual abuse). The video sequences were shown to the students when they were in their classes. The results showed that there were gender differences in probability assessments as well as in anticipated worry related to the three types of risk. There were also differences in worry depending on the respondent’s past experience with an identical or similar problem or risk. In addition to cognitive evaluations, own experience and gender, general worry, social support seeking, anxiety and depression significantly predicted worry. These variables explained 52 percent of the variance. Worry may be a significant predictor of risk behaviour as well as decisions concerning risks and risk reduction. The results are related to the risk-as-feelings hypothesis (Loewenstein, Weber, Hsee and Welch) and other risk decision models are also discussed.

Hjemdal, Odin. Measuring protective factors: The development of two resilience scales in Norway. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 2007;16(2):303-321

Odin Hjemdal

DOI: 10.1080/13669870601054886

This article provides a summary of research related to the development of two scales that measure protective factors associated with resilience. These scales were developed in Norway by one research group with members from the Departments of Psychology at the University of Tromsø and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. (Members of the research team include Oddgeir Friborg, OdinHjemdal, Monica Martinussen,Jan H. Rosenvinge, and Tore C. Stiles.) The work was begun in 1998. Because resilience research is a response to mental health problems, it is important to bear in mind some facts regarding the prevalence and future estimates of mental disorders globally.

Ruud van der Weel

Weel, Frederikus van der; Craig, Cathy M.; van der Meer, Audrey. The rate of change of tau. I: Closing the Gap: The Scientific Writings of David N. Lee: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates 2007. ISBN 0-8058-6316-8. s. 305-315

Audrey van der Meer

This Chapter reflects on the various theoretical changes Dave Lee's tau concept (1976, 1980, 2005) has undergone through the years, how it evolved, and how its use became more and more general. From the deceptively simple tau margin it evolved into general tau theory, explaining the mathematical principles of perception and action, including the underlying neural mechanisms. In our developmental research, the tau concept has been indispensable. It has helped us to show that young infants are not just reflexive organisms only capable of producing stereotypical movements, but that they are able from birth to produce very skilled, goal-directed actions. Moreover, we have shown how the development of the pick-up of perceptual control information helps babies and nursery school children to guide their actions more efficiently. And finally, we have used these findings to study infants who are neurologically at-risk and children with CP with the aim of helping with an early diagnosis so as to devise better, more detailed assessment, diagnosis, and therapeutic procedures. In all these developmental studies, tau has proven to be a helpful tool.

Odin Hjemdal

Hjemdal, Odin; Aune, Tore; Reinfjell, Trude; Stiles, Tore C; Friborg, Oddgeir. Resilience as a Predictor of Depressive Symptoms: A Correlational Study with Young Adolescents. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2007;12(1):91-104

Tore Aune

DOI: 10.1177/1359104507071062

Trude Reinfjell

This correlational study explored the Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ)1 as a predictor for developing depressive symptoms controlling for known risk factors. A young adolescent sample (N = 387) completed the READ, the ShortMood and Feeling Questionnaire (SMFQ), Social Phobia Anxiety Index for Children (SPAI-C), and the occurrence of Stressful Life Events (SLE). In addition, a subsample of their parents (N = 240) completed a parental version of READ (READ-P). The results indicated that the READ assesses important protective factors that are associated with fewer depressive symptoms among young adolescents even when controlling for known risk factors. All five READ factors were predictors of depressive symptoms, while the READ-P showed no predictive value. There were no significant interaction effects between READ andSLE. There were, however, significant main-effects supporting a compensatory model of protective factors. The findings suggest that the READ is a significant predictor of mental health and a useful tool for further research examining differences in stress tolerance among young adolescents.

Tore C. Stiles

Nanna Sønichsen Kayed

Kayed, Nanna Sønnichsen; van der Meer, Audrey. Infants' timing strategies to optical collisions: A longitudinal study. Infant behavior & development 2007;30:50-59

Audrey van der Meer

DOI: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2006.11.001

Blinking is a good indication of awareness to optical collisions in early infancy. In the current longitudinal study, infants were presented with the image of a looming object approaching on a collision course under different constant velocities and constant accelerations. The aim was to investigate which timing strategies the infants used to determine when to make the defensive blink. Blinking when the virtual object reaches a threshold visual angle (angle-strategy) or angular velocity would result in difficulties with accelerating approaches, while blinking when the object is a certain time away (time-strategy) would enable successful responses to all approaches. Eleven infants were tested longitudinally at 22, 26, and 30 weeks. Five infants switched from an angle- to a time-strategy, while one infant switched from using angular velocity to a time-strategy. Five infants used a time-strategy already at 22 weeks. These findings show that with age there is an attunement in the perceptual systems of infants which makes them switch to better specifying variables, enabling them to successfully time their defensive blinking to impending optical collisions.

Wang, Yue; Behne, Dawn Marie. Temporal remnants from Mandarin in nonnative English speech. I: Language Experience in Second Language Speech Learning: John Benjamins Publishing Company 2007. ISBN 978 90 272 1973 2. s. 167-184

Dawn M. Behne

Second language (L2) production can take on the form of an interlanguage, a relatively stable system bearing the nature of both the native language (L1) and L2. Within such a system, acoustic-phonetic components of a syllable are known to bear interlanguage characteristics, but how do these interlanguage components interact within the syllable? The present study investigates temporal patterns of L1 and L2 in interaction within a syllable. Audio recordings were made of English stop-vowel syllables produced by native speakers of Mandarin who were fluent in English (ChE). Native English productions (AmE) of these syllables, and native productions of comparable Mandarin (ChM) stop-vowel syllables were also recorded. Temporal measures included stop closure duration, voiceonset time (VOT), vowel duration, and syllable duration. Results show that the internal timing of syllable components in ChE productions often deviates from ChE in the direction of AmE, with the closure duration, VOT, and vowel duration being intermediate to ChM and AmE. These temporal deviations of individual components were also compensated by temporal adjustments of other components in the syllable, maintaining a balanced distribution between the consonant and vowel. These findings are discussed in the context of previous research on interlanguage behavior and the gradual process of acquiring a target language.

Audrey van der Meer

Aanondsen, Chris Margaret; van der Meer, Audrey; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Evensen, Kari Anne Indredavik; Skranes, Jon; Myhr, Gunnar; Weel, Frederikus van der. Differentiating prospective control information for catching in at-risk and control adolescents. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 2007;49:112-116

Ruud van der Weel

This paper investigated the use of prospective control in catching and how the results can be used as a sensitive tool to detect diffuse signs of brain dysfunction. A detailed analysis on a total of 286 catching movements of eight adolescents (two males, six females [four very-low-birthweight {VLBW}, one small for gestational age {SGA}, and three appropriate for gestational age]; mean age 14y 5mo [SD 6 mo]; range 14-15 y) was performed blind for this purpose. The moving target approached the participants from the side at three different, non-constant accelerations. The results showed that three adolescents used less advanced timing strategies that involved the lower-order variables of distance or velocity to govern movement initiation of at least one of their hands. Two of these were preterm VLBW and one was term SGA. The remaining adolescents, on the other hand, all relied on the higher-order variable of time-to-contact to initiate their hand movements, and were, therefore, considered low-risk. These results were compared with the cerebral magnetic resonance imaging results of the adolescents. The findings show that timing strategy pinpoints successfully those adolescents at risk of neurological problems. It was, therefore, concluded that the skill of using prospective information for catching can be used as a tool to detect diffuse signs of motor dysfunction, which are not readily detected by standard behavioural tests alone.

Bente G. Berg

Berg, Bente Gunnveig; Schachtner, J; Utz, Sandra; Homberg, Uwe. Distribution of neuropeptides in the primary olfactory centre of the heliothine moth Heliothis virescens. Cell and Tissue Research 2007;327:385-398

DOI: 10.1007/s00441-006-0318-x

Neuropeptides are a diverse widespread class of signaling substances in the nervous system of various organisms. In this publication we describe the distribution of neuropeptides in the primary olfactory centre of a small model brain, a moth brain.

Christensen, Marit. How do external changes in a community and internal reorganisation influence employees? A study of local health and labour administration services. International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management 2007;7(2):180-188

Marit Christensen

The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of demands on professionals working in the health sector and the labour market administration when a major local company downsizes. Thirty semi-structured interviews were conducted in three municipalities with the downsizing of a cornerstone industry.The overall hypotheses, which were largely supported by the study and the existing literature in the field, were that downsizing and job insecurity affect the employees’ physical and psychological health. Downsizing also had more indirect effects on the families and the community as a whole, as well as for thelocal services generally. The latter expected to be faced with an increase in work demands and workload affecting the service they give to their clients and their experience of health risks and low job satisfaction. Internal reorganisation to meet the demands seemed to have either multiplicative or additive effects depending on variations in the restructuring process.