Department of Psychology: Publications 2008

Andre, Beate; Ringdal, Gerd Inger; Loge, Jon Håvard; Rannestad, Toril; Lærum, Hallvard; Kaasa, Stein. Experiences with the Implementation of Computerized Tools in Health Care Units: A Review Article. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 2008;24(8):753-775

Gerd Inger Ringdal

DOI: 10.1080/10447310802205768

Demands for improved patient care as well as improved efficiency in the delivery of health care have increased dramatically in recent years. New technologies, including computers, are expected to play an important role in meeting these demands. The aim of this review is to identify the main challenges to the introduction of computer technology in health care and to identify what kinds of factors may promote or hamper the implementation process. A systematic search of relevant databases resulted in 299 hits related to implementation of computer technology in health care, of which 17 met all criteria for inclusion in this review. The following barriers to the adoption of computer technology were identified: negative attitudes, lack of knowledge, role adjustment related to the disruption of traditional work habits, and changes in established work roles. The dual needs to both assess and change attitudes were identified as crucial factors in allowing for the successful implementation of these new technologies. The challenges for future clinical work and research will be to influence the behavior and intentions of health care personnel, to focus on the benefits of introducing computer technology (CT) in health care units, and to make certain that the institution's leadership is fully supportive of the change. Furthermore, this review showed that if the introduction of computerized tools is going to succeed, an adequate training program is imperative.

Arnulf Kolstad

Kolstad, Arnulf. Hvem bidrar til verdiskapingen? Når ordene fordreier virkeligheten. In: Retorikk, etikk og arbeidsliv. Forlag1 2008 ISBN 978-82-92735-25-1. pp. 357-385

Landmark, Tormod; Stiles, Tore C; Fors, Egil Andreas; Holen, Are; Borchgrevink, Petter Chr.. Defense mechanisms in patients with fibromyalgia and major depressive disorder. European Journal of Psychiatry 2008;22(4):185-193

Tore Stiles

Fibromyalgia (FM) and depression has been suggested to share a common underlying etiology. Few studies have investigated the role of emotional regulation processes in FM compared to depressive disorders.The purpose of the current study was to explore the use of defense mechanisms in FM patients with and without comorbid lifetime depressive disorder (LDD), and to compare their use of defenses to healthy control subjects and patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD).

Lennart Sjöberg

Sjøberg, Lennart. Emotional intelligence and life adjustment. In: Emotional Intelligence: Perspectives on Educational and Positive Psychology. Peter Lang Publishing Group 2008 ISBN 1433101955. pp. 169-183

Alm, Magnus; Behne, Dawn Marie. Voicing influences the saliency of place of articulation in audio-visual speech perception in babble. Proceedings of the International Conference on Spoken Language Processing 2008:2865-2868

Dawn Behne

Previous research has shown that voicing can influence the perception of consonant place of articulation (POA) in audiovisual (AV) speech perception, although findings are inconsistent and often differ with the use of background noise. The prediction in the current study was that the AV perception of voiced and voiceless stop consonant POA is influenced by the differences in spectral distribution between voiced and voiceless stops, a hypothesis not compatible with the direction of the voicing effect shifting with different types of noise. Fifteen young adults were tested using incongruent AV stimuli that differed in POA, in a voiced and a voiceless condition, applying the infrequently used babble noise as background. As predicted participants used the auditory modality to a greater extent identifying the POA of voiced stops compared to voiceless stops. The more distinct spectral distribution of the voiced stops may contribute to them being more easily identified auditorily on the POA dimension than the voiceless stops. The study extends previous research using white noise, by demonstrating a consistent pattern of results in babble noise.

Øyvind Kvello

Kvello, Øyvind. Sentrale dimensjoner i læringsprosesser. In: Læring og ferdighetsutvikling. Tapir Akademisk Forlag 2008 ISBN 978-82-519-2218-0. pp. 81-118

Hermundur Sigmundsson

Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Wiedemann, Jan Erik. Ferdighetsutvikling. In: Læring og ferdighetsutvikling. Tapir Akademisk Forlag 2008 ISBN 978-82-519-2218-0. pp. 69-79

Hestad, Knut; Reinvang, Ivar. Normal og patologisk kognitiv aldring - kan de skilles?. Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening 2008;45(9):1133-1142

Knut Hestad

Normal and pathological aging - is it possible to separate them?

The present review discusses approaches to understanding factors behind the transition from normal to pathological aging and consequences for clinical neuropsychological assessment. Normal cognitive changes and dementia of Alzheimer's type and of vascular origins are described. In the «normal» aging process there is a decline in many cognitive domains but quantitatively and qualitatively different from the two mentioned types of dementia. Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease with progressive loss of neurotransmitters that lead to learning and memory deficits and other cognitive problems. It is associated with increased accumulation of extracellular amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the aging brain. There is a relationship to vascular dementia in that both disorders share common risk factors. In between normal and pathological aging the term «mild cognitive impairment» (MCI) has been introduced.

Lennart Sjöberg

Sjøberg, Lennart. Genetically Modified Food in The Eyes of the Public and Experts. Risk Management: An International Journal 2008;10:168-193

DOI: 10.1057/rm.2008.2

Risk perceptions and attitudes to genetically modified food (GMF) were investigated in a survey study of the public (N=469) and experts (N=49). The response rate was 47% for the public. For the experts, response rate was 60% . GMF technology was rated as the worst of 18 technologies by members of the public and highly replaceable. Experts had a very different view but also saw GMF as replaceable. Models of risk perceptions and attitudes with regard to policy and consumer intentions were fitted to data. It was found that a very large share of the variance, about 70% , was accounted for in the latter cases, while risk perception was somewhat harder to account for (about 50% was explained). Traditional explanatory dimensions such as Dread and Novelty were weak explanatory factors as compared to new approaches, which included Interfering with Nature, moral value of technology and epistemic trust. Experts were throughout much more positive to GMF than were members of the public. However, their attitudes and risk perceptions still showed dynamic properties similar to those found in the data from the public. The differences between experts and the public could be well explained in terms of the models tested. In comparisons with recent Eurobarometer studies of attitudes toward GMF, risk emerged in the present study as a more important factor in attitudes, equally important as benefits. The models formulated for the present data were about twice as powerful as those in published analyses of Eurobarometer data.

Soellner, Renate; Gabriel, Ute. Typisch »Kiffer«? Stereotype und Personenwahrnehmung. SUCHT 2008;54(1):32-37

Ute Gabriel

DOI: 10.1463/2008.01.06

Fragestellung: Gibt es ein Cannabisstereotyp, das sich auf die leistungsbezogenen Erwartungen von Lehrern auswirkt? Methodik: 285 Probanden beurteilten in einem länderübergreifenden Experiment einen 16-Jährigen anhand verschiedener Aussagen zum schulspezifischen Verhalten. Der Junge wurde zusätzlich entweder als gelegentlicher Cannabiskonsument oder als »Schwarzfahrer« beschrieben. Ergebnisse: In der Bedingung des gelegentlichen Cannabiskonsumenten wurde der Schüler als weniger leistungsbereit, weniger leistungsfähig und weniger kooperationsbereit eingestuft. Schlussfolgerungen: Gleichwohl empirische Belege eines amotivationalen Syndroms fehlen, hält sich das Bild des antriebslosen »Kiffers« und beeinflusst die Erwartungen von Lehrern.

Øyvind Kvello

Kvello, Øyvind. Tidlig samspills betydning for barn og unges vennskap med jevnaldrende: Vi kommer alle hjemmefra. In: Moderne oppvekst - nye tider, nye krav. Universitetsforlaget 2008 ISBN 9788215013602. pp. 34-59

Kvello, Øyvind. red. Oppvekst - Om barns og unges utvikling og oppvekstmiljø. Gyldendal Akademisk 2008 (ISBN 978-82-05-38051-6) 549 s

Øyvind Kvello

Øyvind Kvello: En globalisert norsk barndom
Øyvind Kvello: Sentrale begreper i sosialiseringsteorier
Øyvind Kvello: De mest betydningefulle sosialiseringsarenaer og -agenter
Øyvind Kvello: Transaksjonsmodellen: Mennesker og miljø utvikler hverandre
Øyvind Kvello: Jevnaldringer som sosialiseringsagenter
Øyvind Kvello: Utsatte barn og unge
Lars Wichstrøm: Barns og unges psykiske helse

Lars Wichstrøm

Rostad, Anne Margrethe; Nyberg, Per; Sivberg, Bengt. Predicting developmental deficiencies at the age of four based on data from the first seven months of life. Infant Mental Health Journal 2008 ;Volum 29.(6) s. 588-608

DOI: 10.1002/imhj.20194

The study examines very young children with the aim of identifying precursors of developmental problems during the first 7 months of age. Information from screening and observations in the birth clinic, in the first level of health care, and from parents was collected on five different occasions. The information that was included concerning the child and family was defined as either optimal or nonoptimal. At the age of 4 years, a clinical group was identified (11.1% of the total population). Logistic regression analyses were performed to detect risk factors. Twenty-one precursors were used to create a screening questionnaire that provided useful information (sensitivity = 56.1%, specificity = 98.8%) for predicting developmental problems of the children. The contribution of sociodemographic data was significant; medical information was less significant. The highest prediction rate surprisingly was found in the moderate clinical subgroup (62.1%), compared to the group with more severe problems that had a slightly lower rate (46.7%). The conclusion of the study is that it is possible to detect infants in need of early intervention using a continuous process of observation and screening.

Tor Erik Nysæter

Nysæter, Tor Erik; Nordahl, Hans Morten. Principles and clinical application of schema therapy for patients with borderline personality disorder. Nordic Psychology 2008;60(3):249-263

Hans M. Nordahl

Many approaches for treatment are proposed for Borderline Personality Disorder, but there is no single treatment approach that seems to be the treatment of choice. New approaches are emerging and during the past ten years several cognitive behavioural oriented therapies have been developed for the treatment of persons with Borderline Personality Disorder. The article presents some essential features of the most recent and integrative cognitive approach for patients with Borderline Personality Disorder, namely Schema therapy developed by Young and colleagues. Principles and application of Schema therapy are illustrated by clinical vignettes based on the authors' own clinical work with these patients.

Arne Vikan

Vikan, Arne; Nordvik, Hilmar. Perceived Changes associated with becoming Angry, Anxious, and Sad. Nordic Psychology 2008;60(3):235-248

Hilmar Nordvik

An n=418 study of Norwegian students showed that they associated arousal of anger, anxiety, and sadness with changes in such psychological characteristics as personality and self-concepts. An index of the cognition of emotional changes (CEC) was negatively correlated with an index for perceived control. Changes were rated as greater for personal characteristics than for other persons' responses, perceived control was rated as greater for men than for women, and anger was rated as greater than anxiety and sadness on both indexes. An n=200 study of outpatients showed markedly higher CEC and lower control ratings than students, and an n=401 study of Brazilian students showed equivalence of measures and similarity of results.

John-Arne Skolbekken

Ursin, Lars Øystein; Hoeyer, Klaus; Skolbekken, John-Arne. The informed consenters: governing biobanks in Scandinavia. In: BIOBANKS Governance in comparative perspective. Routledge 2008 ISBN 0-415-42737-1. p. 177-193

Søndenaa, Erik; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Palmstierna, Tom; Nøttestad, Jim Aage. The prevalence and nature of intellectual disability in Norwegian prisons. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 2008;52(12):1129-1137

Kirsten Rasmussen

DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2788.2008.01072.x

Background The objective of the study was to calculate the prevalence of inmates with intellectual disabilities (ID), and identify historical, medical and criminological characteristics of a certain impact.

Methods A random sample of 143 inmates from a Norwegian prison cross sectional sample was studied. The Hayes Ability Screening Index (HASI) was validated with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI).

Results The prevalence of inmates with ID, IQ < 70, was 10.8%. Some essential characteristics of inmates with ID were more frequent medication for mental disorders, a higher number of imprisonments, less drug abuse and less education than the other inmates. The results indicated that the HASI is a valid tool for screening of ID for the Norwegian inmates.

Conclusions The prevalence of ID in Norwegian inmates is significant, measured by WASI and HASI. Identification, rehabilitation and care, concerning an intellectual handicap, are mostly absent in the Norwegian criminal justice system.

Tore Stiles

Stiles, Tore C; Wright, Danielle. Cognitive-behavioural treatment of chronic pain conditions. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry 2008;62(S47):30-36

DOI: 10.1080/08039480802315665

The aim of this article is to present two learning-based models for chronic pain, which have been found to be effective in the treatment of various chronic pain conditions. The article intends to give an introduction to the understanding of chronic pain conditions and the mechanisms thought to influence both the transition from acute to chronic pain and the maintenance of the condition. The emphasis will be on theoretical conceptualization and practical guidelines concerning the treatment principles. Some recommendations for future research areas will be presented in the concluding notes.

Lennart Sjöberg

Sjøberg, Lennart; Sjøberg, Britt-Marie Drottz. Attitudes Towards Nuclear Waste and Siting Policy: Experts and the Public. In: Nuclear Waste Research: Siting, Technology and Treatment. Nova Science Publishers, Inc. 2008 ISBN 978-1-60456-184-5. p. 47-74

Britt-Marie Drottz Sjöberg

Øvergård, Kjell Ivar; Bjørkli, Cato Alexander; Hoff, Thomas. The Bodily Basis of Control in Technically Aided Movement. In: Spaces of Mobility The Planning, Ethics, Engineering and Religion of Human Motion. Equinox Publishing 2008 ISBN 9781845533397. p. 101-124

Gygax, Pascal; Gabriel, Ute Barbara. Can a group of musicians be composed of women? Generic interpretation of French masculine role names in the absence and presence of feminine forms. Swiss Journal of Psychology 2008;67(3):143-151

Ute Gabriel

DOI: 10.1024/1421-0185.67.3.143

The malleability of the generic interpretation of masculine role names in French was investigated by manipulating readers’ exposure to feminine forms. In two experiments, participants were to decide whether a person introduced by a kinship term (e.g., sister) could be part of a group represented by a role name (e.g., nurse, musicians). In Experiment 1, role names were presented in the masculine form in the first part and in either the masculine or the feminine form in the second part. Independent of role name stereotypicality, participants were less likely to relate female kinship terms to role names in the masculine form and even less likely when they were also exposed to feminine forms. These results were replicated in a second experiment, in which the communication source was varied: Before performing the experimental task, participants read job advertisements that either used only the masculine or both the masculine and the feminine form. When feminine forms were added, the generic interpretation of the masculine form decreased, even when the feminine forms were provided by a different source.

John-Arne Skolbekken

Skolbekken, John-Arne. Unlimited medicalization? Risk and the pathologization of normality. In: Health, Risk and Vulnerability. Routledge 2008 ISBN 978-0-415-38308-0. p. 16-29

Lennart Sjöberg

Sjøberg, Lennart; Sjøberg, Britt-Marie Drottz. Risk perception by politicians and the public. Energy and Environment 2008;19(3+4):455-483

Britt-Marie Drottz Sjöberg

DOI: 10.1260/095830508784641408

Risk perception by local politicians responsible for health and the environment is compared to that of the public in two large, representative samples, and to a group of nuclear waste management experts. Data were collected on many aspects of risk perception with an emphasis on ionizing radiation and nuclear waste issues. It was found that politicians and the public had, on the average, quite similar risk perceptions, which were very different from expert opinion. Politicians had difficulties in estimating what risk perception the public had. Demand for risk mitigation was mostly related to the respondents' ratings of risk, for both politicians and members of the public. Politicians apparently did not consider the public's views to any large degree in forming their policy attitudes. Politicians had less trust in industry than the public did. Both epistemic and social trust were found to be factors in perceived risk, roughly equal in importance. The risk perception models also included Interfering with Nature as an important factor, whereas traditional Psychometric Model factors contributed very little. Frequency of communication with others about a nuclear policy issue was related to attitude; more strongly so if communication was more frequent. The results were interpreted as the outcome of a process of social validation of policy attitudes, a hypothesis which could also explain why experts had so divergent risk assessments as compared to politicians and members of the public. Attitudes to a local high-level nuclear waste repository were quite negative in both groups, positive among the experts.

Lynum, Linn Ingunn; Wilberg, Theresa; Karterud, S. Self-esteem in patients with borderline and avoidant personality disorders. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 2008;49(5):469-477

DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9450.2008.00655.x

This study compared self-esteem in patients with avoidant personality disorder (APD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD). Patients diagnosed with one or more personality disorders answered the questionnaire Index of Self Esteem as part of a comprehensive evaluation within the setting of a treatment trial. Our hypotheses were that (1) both patients with APD and patients with BPD would report low levels of self-esteem, (2) patients with APD would report lower self-esteem than patients with BPD. We further expected that (3) patients with higher levels of depression would report lower levels of self-esteem, but that (4) both borderline and avoidant personality pathology would contribute to explained variance in self-esteem beyond what would be accounted for by depression. All of our hypotheses were supported. The results from our study showed a significant difference in self-esteem level between the two personality disorders, patients with APD reporting lower self-esteem than patients with BPD. Subjects with both disorders were measured to have self-esteem levels within the range that presumes clinical problems. Self-esteem represents an important quality of subjective experience of the self, and the study of self-esteem in PDs can offer new and important knowledge of PDs as self-pathology.

Oreg, S; Vakola, M; Armenakis, A; Bozionelos, N; Gonzalez, L; Hrebickova, M; Kordacova, J; Mlacic, B; Feric, I; Topic, MK; Saksvik, Per Øystein; Bayazit, M; Arciniega, L; Barkauskiene, R; Fujimoto, Y; Han, J; Jimmieson, N; Mitsuhashi, H; Ohly, S; Hetland, H; Saksvik, I; van Dam, K. Dispositional resistance to change: Measurement equivalence and the link to personal values across 17 nations. Journal of Applied Psychology 2008;93(4):935-944

Per Øystein Saksvik

DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.93.4.935

The concept of dispositional resistance to change has been introduced in a series of exploratory and confirmatory analyses through which the validity of the Resistance to Change (RTC) Scale has been established (S. Oreg, 2003). However, the vast majority of participants with whom the scale was validated were from the United States. The purpose of the present work was to examine the meaningfulness of the construct and the validity of the scale across nations. Measurement equivalence analyses of data from 17 countries, representing 13 languages and 4 continents, confirmed the cross-national validity of the scale. Equivalent patterns of relationships between personal values and RTC across samples extend the nomological net of the construct and provide further evidence that dispositional resistance to change holds equivalent meanings across nations.

Gerd Inger Ringdal

Andre, Beate; Ringdal, Gerd Inger; Loge, Jon Håvard; Rannestad, T; Kaasa, Stein. The importance of key personnel and active management for successful implementation of computer-based technology in palliative care: Results from a qualitative study. Computers, Informatics, Nursing 2008;26(4):183-189

DOI: 10.1097/01.NCN.0000304802.00628.70

Symptom assessment is an important issue in palliative care. Computer technology is now available for use in such assessments. The aims of the present study were to investigate the factors that can promote implementation of computer technology in a palliative care unit. Symptom assessment by use of handheld computers combined with a database for storing the assessments and other clinical data were introduced in 2001 at the Palliative Medicine Unit of Trondheim University Hospital. Seventeen respondents (nurses, physicians, and physiotherapists) participated in an in-depth interview. The themes presented in this article are perceived aims, training, information, and communication. A qualitative approach was used in analyzing the data. All the respondents expressed a wish for a resource person, and the expectations regarding this person differed, because this person had to be present at the unit, should provide quick help, should be a driving force, and should be responsible for training and teaching. There is a need for skilled and motivated key personnel in the unit if implementation is to be successful.

Wold, Thomas. Tilsyn og tilretteleggelse kontroll av barn og unges internettbruk. Norsk Medietidsskrift 2008;15(2):105-124

Østbø, Laila Eriksen; Nordvik, Hilmar. Personlighetsinventoriet NEO PI-R: Klinisk validitet. Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening 2008;45(7):845-848

Hilmar Nordvik

This study was aimed to investigate the FFM profiles by outpatients in psychotherapy. How do the patient profiles differ from the Norwegian population norms? Is there any relation between variations on NEO PI-Rs domains/facets and therapy effect? Can NEO PI-R relate to the patients symptoms? NEO PI-R profiles of 158 patients were analyzed. The common patient profile was within the normal variation in the normal population, but the scores were relatively high on Neuroticism and low on Extraversion, Openness and Conscientiousness. This study did not give support for a relationship between personality trait and therapy effect.

Truls Ryum

Ryum, Truls; Vogel, Patrick A.; Hagen, Roger; Stiles, Tore C. Memories of early attachment: The use of PBI as a predictor of psychotherapy outcome in Pesso-Boyden System Psychomotor (PBSP) group therapy, Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy (CBGT), Individual Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Individual Treatment as Usual (TAU) with adult out-patients. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy 2008;15:276-285

Patrick A. Vogel

DOI: 10.1002/cpp.576

Roger Hagen

Objective: To examine the predictive validity of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) for outcome in individual and group psychotherapy.

Method: Data from four different clinical trials were combined, yielding a total of 105 patients. After controlling for gender, age and initial symptomatic distress, the predictive validity of the PBI subscales was investigated using the symptom checklist-90-revised (SCL-90-R) and inventory of interpersonal problems-64 (IIP-64) at termination as dependent measures in each treatment condition using separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses.

Results: Using the SCL-90-R at termination as dependent measure, reports of higher paternal and maternal care were related to a worse outcome in the Pesso-Boyden System Psychomotor condition, whereas reports of higher paternal care were related to a better outcome in the Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy condition. Also, higher maternal protection was related to a better outcome in the Cognitive-Behavioral Group condition. Using the IIP-64 at termination as dependent measure, reports of higher paternal protection were related to a better outcome in the Treatment As Usual condition.

Discussion: The study shows that the PBI may function as a clinical predictor for treatment response, although the results were somewhat contrary to previous reportings. Future studies should contrast and investigate possible differences between individual and group treatments further, as well as more clearly defined diagnostic groups. Clinical implications are presented.

Tore C. Stiles

John-Arne Skolbekken

Østerlie, Wenche; Solbjør, Marit; Skolbekken, John-Arne; Hofvind, Solveig; Sætnan, Ann Rudinow; Forsmo, Siri. Challenges of informed choice in organised screening. Journal of Medical Ethics 2008 ;Volum 34.(9) s. e1-e5

DOI: 10.1136/jme.2008.024802

Context: Despite much research on informed choice and the individuals’ autonomy in organised medical screening, little is known about the individuals’ decision-making process as expressed in their own words.

Objectives: To explore the decision-making process among women invited to a mammography screening programme.

Setting: Women living in the counties of Sør- and Nord-Trøndelag, Norway, invited to the first round of the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) in 2003.

Methods: Qualitative methods based on eight semistructured focus-group interviews with a total of 69 women aged 50–69 years.

Results: The decision to attend mammography screening was not based on the information in the invitation letter and leaflet provided by the NBCSP. They perceived the invitation letter with a prescheduled appointment as if a decision for mammography had already been made. This was experienced as an aid in overcoming the postponements that easily occur in daily lives. The invitation to mammography screening was embraced as an indication of a responsible welfare state, "like a mother taking care."

Conclusion: In a welfare state where governmental institutions are trusted, mass screening for disease is acknowledged by screening participants as a valued expression of paternalism. Trust, gratitude, and convenience were more important factors than information about benefits, harms, and risks when the women made their decisions to attend screening. These elements should be included in the ethical debates on informed choice in preventive medicine.

Gabriel, Ute; Gygax, Pascal. Can societal language amendments change gender representation? The case of Norway. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 2008;49:451-457

Ute Gabriel

DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9450.2008.00650.x

This study investigates the influence of stereotypical information and the grammatical masculine on the representation of gender in Norwegian by applying a sentence evaluation paradigm. In this study participants had to decide whether a second sentence containing explicit information about the gender of one of more of the characters (e.g. . . . one of the women . . . ) was a sensible continuation of a first sentence introducing a role name (e.g. The spies came out . . . ). Participants’ representations were biased by the stereotypicality of the role names when reading female (e.g. nurses) and male (e.g. pilots) stereotyped role names (replicating findings from the English sample in a previous publication), but male biased when reading neutral role names (replicating findings from the French and the German samples in a previous publication).

Dawn M. Behne

Wang, Yue; Behne, Dawn Marie; Jiang, Haisheng. Linguistic experience and audio-visual perception of non-native fricatives. Journal of Acoustical Society of America 2008;124(3):1716-1726

DOI: 10.1121/1.2956483

This study examined the effects of linguistic experience on audio-visual (AV) perception of non-native (L2) speech. Canadian English natives and Mandarin Chinese natives differing in degree of English exposure [long and short length of residence (LOR) in Canada] were presented with English fricatives of three visually distinct places of articulation: interdentals nonexistent in Mandarin and labiodentals and alveolars common in both languages. Stimuli were presented in quiet and in a café-noise background in four ways: audio only (A), visual only (V), congruent AV (AVc), and incongruent AV (AVi). Identification results showed that overall performance was better in the AVc than in the A or V condition and better in quiet than in café noise. While the Mandarin long LOR group approximated the native English patterns, the short LOR group showed poorer interdental identification, more reliance on visual information, and greater AV-fusion with the AVi materials, indicating the failure of L2 visual speech category formation with the short LOR non-natives and the positive effects of linguistic experience with the long LOR non-natives. These results point to an integrated network in AV speech processing as a function of linguistic background and provide evidence to extend auditory-based L2 speech learning theories to the visual domain.

Trude Reinfjell

Reinfjell, Trude; Hjemdal, Odin; Aune, Tore; Vikan, Arne; Diseth, Trond H.. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™) 4.0 as an assessment measure for depressive symptoms: A correlational study with young adolescents. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry 2008;62(4):279-286

Odin Hjemdal

DOI: 10.1080/08039480801983950

Tore Aune

Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is today considered an important assessment measurement, but still only a few measures assess HRQOL outcomes for children and adolescents. One of them is the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™). This correlation study explored the associations between depressive symptoms in young adolescents and the PedsQL scores when controlling for known risk factors. An adolescent sample (n=425) completed a battery of measures including the PedsQL™ Norwegian version, the Short Mood and Feeling Questionnaire (SMFQ), the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for children (SPAI-C), and the occurrence of Stressful Life Events (SLE). The results showed a mild to moderate correlation between the measures PedsQL, SMFQ, SPAI-C and SLE. The presence of depressive symptoms significantly predicted the PedsQL scores for the adolescence, and explained 17% of the variance in outcome for the PedsQL Total Scale. The findings suggest that the PedsQL™ is an adequate assessment instrument regarding depressive symptoms in young adolescents, and can be useful in both clinical practice and further research as an assessment measure regarding children's mental health.

Arne Vikan

Roger Hagen

Hagen, Roger; Nordahl, Hans Morten. Behavioral Experiments in the Treatment of Paranoid Schizophrenia: A Single Case Study. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice 2008;15(3):296-305

Hans M. Nordahl

DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2007.09.004

Since the first description of cognitive therapy of paranoid delusions appeared in the literature, the empirical support for cognitive behavioral therapy in treating psychotic symptoms has been widely established. The aim of the present case study is to show how the behavioral experiment can be used as a powerful tool to change delusional thinking in a patient with paranoid schizophrenia. In addition to highlighting the use of behavioral experiments to change the patient's delusion, we will illustrate various cognitive techniques that can be adapted to treat patients with psychotic symptoms.

Hoff, Thomas; Øvergård, Kjell Ivar. Ecological Interaction Properties. In: Embodied Minds – Technical Environments. Conceptual Tools for Analysis, Design and Training. Tapir Akademisk Forlag 2008 ISBN 9788251923415. p. 147-160

Øvergård, Kjell Ivar. A Video-Based Phenomenological Method for Evaluation of Driving Experience in Staged or Simulated Environments. In: Embodied Minds – Technical Environments. Conceptual Tools for Analysis, Design and Training. Tapir Akademisk Forlag 2008 ISBN 9788251923415. p. 259-277

Kirsten Rasmussen

Søndenaa, Erik; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Nøttestad, Jim Aage. Forensic issues in intellectual disability. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 2008;21(5):449-453

DOI: 10.1097/YCO.0b013e328305e5e9

Purpose of review: The present paper reviews some of the most significant findings in the field of forensic issues related to intellectual disability over the last 2 years.

Recent findings: Recent publications have explored the prevalence and assessment of intellectual disabilities in the criminal justice system, as well as individual characteristics of intellectual disabled offenders. Service by the criminal justice system and treatment of intellectual disabled offenders have also been explored. New insights into violence and sexual offences have been achieved, however identification and evidence-based treatment of intellectual disabled offenders are not widely explored issues.

Summary: Progress in treatment studies, studies of the function of the criminal justice system and risk assessments have resulted in improvements in these aspects during recent years. The wide range of services involved in successful initiatives has been addressed, but some crucial aspects still receive too little attention. Differences between countries and cultures have not been emphasized, and the progress that has been achieved seems to be confined to countries with a clear policy and organized services for offenders with intellectual disabilities.

Gabriel, Ute. Language Policies and In-group Favoritism. The Malleability of the Interpretation of Generically Intended Masculine Forms. Social Psychology 2008;39(2):103-107

Ute Gabriel

DOI: 10.1027/1864-9335.39.2.103

This study investigates the influence of sex of respondent, context valence, and type of generic on the naming of female personalities in Norway where the feminine suffixing has dropped away in reaction to the problem of linguistic sexism. A total of 162 participants were asked to name either their most- or least-liked personalities. The survey employed either the generic form only or the generic form together with the obsolete feminine forms. Adding the feminine forms led to a significant increase in the number of female personalities named, suggesting that the Norwegian policy of gender neutralization has not (yet) been successful. Furthermore, the sex of respondent was positively related to the naming of same-sex personalities in the positive but not in the negative valence condition, thus documenting malleability in the interpretation of generics.

Birthe L. Knizek

Hjelmeland, Heidi Marie; Knizek, Birthe Loa; Kinyanda, Eugene; Musisi, S; Nordvik, Hilmar; Svarva, Kyrre. Suicidal Behavior as Communication in a Cultural Context. A Comparative Study Between Uganda and Norway. Crisis 2008;29(3):137-144

Hilmar Nordvik

DOI: 10.1027/0227-5910.29.3.137

In this study, we attempt to even out some of the imbalance in suicide research caused by the fact that most such research has been conducted in the Western part of the world with the corresponding common disregard of the potential problems in generalizing findings to different cultural settings. Our point of departure was to look at suicidal behavior as communication and our main purpose was to investigate whether Qvortrup’s semiotic four-factor model, which has been empirically supported in the West, would be applicable in an African context, exemplified by Uganda. Interviews of patients admitted to hospital following an act of nonfatal suicidal behavior were conducted in Uganda and Norway and the data were compared. The results showed that the four-factor structure found in the West was not applicable in the Ugandan context, but that two by two of these factors were collapsed into a two-factor model in Uganda: One factor regarding the external dialog and one factor regarding the internal dialog. Some differences and some similarities were found between Norway and Uganda when suicidal behavior was considered as a communicative act. The results are discussed in terms of the differences in the psychological characteristics of the suicidal persons in the two countries, as well as the different cultural settings of the study.

Birthe L. Knizek

Knizek, Birthe Loa; Hjelmeland, Heidi Marie; Skruibis, Paulius; Fartacek, Reinholdt; Fekete, Sandor; Gailiene, Danute; Osvath, Peter; Salander Renberg, Ellinor; Rohrer, Rudolf. County Council Politicians' Attitudes Toward Suicide and Suicide Prevention. A Qualitative Cross-Cultural Study. Crisis 2008;29(3):123-130

DOI: 10.1027/0227-5910.29.3.123

The purpose of the present study was to compare county council politicians’ attitudes toward suicide and suicide prevention in five European countries. A questionnaire was distributed and here the responses to the open-ended questions are analyzed qualitatively. Considerable differences were found in what the politicians in the five countries believed to be the most important causes of suicide and how suicide can be prevented. There were also differences in to what degree the politicians revealed a judgmental attitude toward suicide, which seemed to be related to the magnitude of the problem in the respective countries. A certain implicit inconsistency in the logic directing the politicians’ responses was found when their views on causes to suicide and suicide prevention strategies were compared. The responses indicate a need for increased consciousness and knowledge about suicide and suicide prevention among politicians in all the five countries. This is important since they are responsible for initiating and funding suicide preventive efforts.

Spada, MM; Mohiyeddini, C; Wells, Adrian. Measuring metacognitions associated with emotional distress: Factor structure and predictive validity of the metacognitions questionnaire 30. Personality and Individual Differences 2008;45(3):238-242

DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2008.04.005

The metacognitions questionnaire 30 (MCQ-30) by Wells and Cartwright-Hatton (2004) represents a unique measure of individual differences in metacognitive beliefs, judgements and monitoring tendencies considered to be crucial in the metacognitive theory (Wells, 2000) of psychological disturbances. However, the psychometric properties of this measure have not yet been exhaustively investigated. In this study we assessed 1304 participants from the general population. The relative independence of the five factors constituting the MCQ-30 was confirmed and reliability was satisfactory. A sub-sample of 399 participants was also investigated to verify whether previously observed associations between dimensions of metacognition and emotional distress (anxiety and depression) could be replicated. Structural equation modeling revealed that dimensions of metacognition contributed to both anxiety and depression providing further support for the validity of the measure. These findings, taken together, confirm that the MCQ-30 is a valuable tool for the assessment of metacognition.

Tronsmoen, Torbjørn. Associations between self-assessment of driving ability, driver training and crash involvement among young drivers. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 2008;11(5):334-346

Torbjørn Tronsmoen

DOI: 10.1016/j.trf.2008.02.002

The core aim of the present study is to examine the psychometric qualities of a measurement instrument for self-assessment of driving ability. The results are based on a self-completion questionnaire survey conducted among a representative sample of Norwegian drivers who were 18, 19 and 20 years of age (n = 1419). The response rate was 37%. The results showed that self-assessment of driving ability consisted of the following four dimensions: general driving ability, safety orientation, the body dimension, and specific task skills. The reliability and validity of the measurement instrument were found to be satisfactory. The highest level of self-assessed driving ability was found among male respondents, experienced drivers, drivers who had had a high amount of informal driver training, and drivers with the lowest levels of accident risk. The consequences of the results for driver training and accident prevention are discussed.

Lars Wichstrøm

Jozefiak, Thomas; Larsson, Bo Sture; Wichstrøm, Lars; Mattejat, Fritz; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike. Quality of Life as reported by school children and their parents: a cross-sectional survey. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 2008 ;6:34

DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-6-34

Background Comprehensive evidence exists regarding the discrepancy between children's reports and parents' by proxy reports on emotional and behavioural problems. However, little is yet known about factors influencing the extent to which child self- and parent by proxy reports differ in respect of child Quality of Life (QoL). The aim of the study was to investigate the degree of discrepancy between child and parent by proxy reports as measured by two different QoL instruments.

Methods A representative Norwegian sample of 1997 school children aged 8–16 years, and their parents were studied using the Inventory of Life Quality (ILC) and the 'Kinder Lebensqualität Fragebogen' (KINDL). Child and parent reports were compared by t-test, and correlations were calculated by Pearson product moment coefficient. Psychometric aspects were examined in regard to both translated QoL instruments (internal consistency by Cronbach's alpha and test-retest reliability by intraclass correlation coefficients).

Results Parents evaluated the QoL of their children significantly more positively than did the children. Correlations between mother-child and father-child reports were significant (p < 0.01) and similar but low to moderate (r = 0.32; and r = 0.30, respectively, for the KINDL, and r = 0.30 and r = 0.26, respectively, for the ILC). Mother and father reports correlated moderately highly (r = 0.54 and r = 0.61 for the KINDL and ILC, respectively). No significant differences between correlations of mother-daughter/son and father-daughter/son pairs in regard to reported child QoL were observed on either of the two instruments.

Conclusion In the present general population sample, parents reported higher child QoL than did their children. Concordance between child and parent by proxy report was low to moderate. The level of agreement between mothers and fathers in regard to their child's QoL was moderate. No significant impact of parent and child gender in regard to agreement in ratings of child QoL was found. Both the child and parent versions of the Norwegian translations of the KINDL and ILC can be used in surveys of community populations, but in regard to the self-report of 9–10 years old children, only the KINDL total QoL scale or the ILC are recommended.

Pal, Suchitra; Saksvik, Per Øystein. Work-family conflict and psychosocial work environment stressors as predictors of job stress in a cross-cultural study. International Journal of Stress Management 2008;15(1):22-42

Per Øystein Saksvik

DOI: 10.1037/1072-5245.15.1.22

The purpose of this cross-cultural study was to investigate the relationship between work-family conflict (WFC), family-work conflict (FWC), job demands, job control, social support, flexibility in working hours, and job stress. The sample consisted of 27 doctors and 328 nurses from Norway, as well as 111 doctors and 136 nurses from India. The results indicate that predictors of job stress in India are different from Norway and different from doctors to nurses. For Norwegian doctors, none of the study variables were predictors of job stress. For Norwegian nurses WFC, high job demands, and low flexibility in working hours were predictors of job stress. For Indian doctors low job control and for Indian nurses high FWC and low social support were predictors of job stress.

Tore Aune

Aune, Tore; Stiles, Tore C; Svarva, Kyrre. Psychometric properties of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children using a non-American population-based sample. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 2008;22(6):1075-1086

Tore C. Stiles

DOI: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2007.11.006

Although previous studies have examined the factor structure of the SPAI-C, adequate factor analytic methodology has not been employed. This study explored the psychometric properties of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C), using a non-American population-based sample of older children and young adolescents 11–14 years of age. Initially an exploratory factor analysis was conducted followed 1 year later by a confirmatory factor analysis. Five factors labeled Assertiveness, Public Performance, Physical/Cognitive Symptoms, Social Encounter, and Avoidance were retained and confirmed. The Public Performance and Assertiveness factors were the most stable and consistent factors or traits of social anxiety over a 1-year period. Results revealed adequate concurrent validity, internal consistency and moderate 12-month test–retest reliability of the SPAI-C total scale. The SPAI-C was found to assess levels of both social anxiety and social anxiety disorder according to DSM-IV criteria. Findings suggest that the SPAI-C is applicable in clinical treatment studies designed to assess sensitivity to change in various aspects of social anxiety disorder.

Ute Gabriel

Gabriel, Ute; Gygax, Pascal; Sarrasin, Oriane; Garnham, Alan; Oakhill, Jane. Au pairs are rarely male: Norms on the gender perception of role names across English, French, and German. Behavior Research Methods 2008;40(1):206-212

A list of role names for future use in research on gender stereotyping was created and evaluated. In two studies, 126 role names were rated with reference to their gender stereotypicality by English-, French-, and German-speaking students of universities in Switzerland (French and German) and in the U.K.(English). Role names were either presented in specific feminine and masculine forms (Study 1) or in the masculine form (generic masculine) only (Study 2). The rankings of the stereotypicality ratings were highly reliable across languages and questionnaire versions, but the overall mean of the ratings was less strongly male if participants were also presented with the female versions of the role names and if the latter were presented on the left side of the questionnaires.

Klausen, Vegard; Hagen, Roger. Kognitiv adferdsteori ved psykose. Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening 2008;45(5):545-554

Roger Hagen

Det har tidligere blitt antatt at psykotiske symptomer som vrangforestillinger og hallusinasjoner ikke kan være gjenstand for psykoterapi. Nyere forskning når det gjelder psykoseproblematikk, tyder på at det motsatte er tilfellet.

Verplanken, Bas; Velsvik, Ruth. Habitual negative body image thinking as psychological risk factor in adolescents. Body image 2008;5(2):133-140

DOI: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2007.11.001

Negative body image thinking can be broken down into cognitive content (body dissatisfaction thoughts) and the way such thoughts occur. The present study focused on negative body image thinking as mental habit, i.e., the degree to which such thinking occurs frequently and automatically [Verplanken, Friborg, Wang, Trafimow, & Woolf, 2007]. In a sample of 250 adolescents (age 12–15) it was found that negative body image thinking habit uniquely accounted for variance in self-esteem and eating disturbance propensity over and above body image dissatisfaction. Considering negative body image thinking as a mental habit contributes to a deeper understanding of body dissatisfaction in adolescents, and may have implications for interventions to deal with such attitudes and their potentially harmful consequences.

Wichstrøm, Lars. Selvmordsforsøk hos norske ungdommer: resultater fra undersøkelsen Ung i Norge. Suicidologi 2008;13(1):28-33

Lars Wichstrøm

"Ung i Norge" er en prospektiv studie som startet i 1992 og hvor den siste datainnsamlingen ble avsluttet i 2006. I tillegg ble den opprinnelige datainnsamlingen fra 1992 gjentatt i 2002. Samlet sett har dette datasettet generert en rekke funn omkring selvmordsforsøk hos norsk ungdom generelt sett, men også omkring utvikling av villet egenskade hos unge mennesker.

John-Arne Skolbekken

Skolbekken, John-Arne; Østerlie, Wenche; Forsmo, Siri. Brittle bones, pain and fractures - Lay constructions of osteoporosis among Norwegian women attending the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT). Social Science and Medicine 2008;66:2562-2572

DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.02.022

Osteoporosis has been labelled the disease of the 21st century. Over the past couple of centuries there have been various notions of this disease in medicine. In the present medical discourse, the emphasis is on prevention rather than treatment, making osteoporosis into a major risk factor for bone fractures. In Norway, osteoporosis is a particularly prevalent condition, leading to bone mass measurements being included in several large health surveys. In a follow-up study of the second round of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT), women aged 55–75 years were invited to participate in focus groups to talk about their experiences in relation to their bone density measurements. Findings from these focus groups show that osteoporosis is perceived as a disease characterized by brittle bones, pain and fractures. The physical appearance of a hunchbacked old woman is a dominant way of portraying the disease. It is mainly perceived as prevalent among women, but evidence that men can get it is provided through the example of a famous male athlete who became osteoporotic. Causal explanations for the disease are dominated by culturally shaped anecdotal evidence wherein medical knowledge has been included. Limits to lay constructions of osteoporosis based on such evidence are discussed. Talking about osteoporosis across generations the women applied different explanations for the condition over time. In doing so, they also showed that they have adopted the morality of the new public health where the individual has control over her health through self-governance. Whereas this was no option for their grandmothers, their grandchildren's generation was seen as one failing to meet their obligations to become healthy citizens. The lay construction of osteoporosis can thus be seen as one that has developed from a situation where osteoporotic persons were perceived as victims of harsh circumstances to one of individual responsibility.

Straume, Lisa Vivoll. Flow as a Recource: A Contribution to Organizational Psychology. 2008; Tapir Akademisk Forlag (ISBN 978-82-519-2310-1)

Saksvik, Per Øystein. Mestring av endringer i arbeidslivet - En guide til deg som er ansatt (eller leder) i en organisasjon i endring. Cappelen Akademisk Forlag 2008 (ISBN 978-82-02-28845-7) 49 s.

Per Øystein Saksvik

Mestring av endringer i arbeidslivet handler om hvordan man kan forberede seg på en omstilling, og hva man kan gjøre dersom man står midt oppi en endring på arbeidsplassen som får konsekvenser for en selv. Hva er lurt å gjøre, hva bør en tenke på for å være føre var, hvem kan hjelpe en osv., er blant de spørsmålene som berøres.

Truls Ryum

Berge, Torkil; Repål, Arne; Ryum, Truls; Samoilow, Dimitrij Kielland. Behandlingsallianse i kognitiv terapi. I: Håndbok i kognitiv terapi. Gyldendal Akademisk 2008 ISBN 9788205371248. s. 24-60

Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair

Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen. Generalisert angstlidelse. I: Håndbok i kognitiv terapi. Gyldendal Akademisk 2008 ISBN 9788205371248. s. 202-224

Patrick A. Vogel

Hansen, Bjarne; Vogel, Patrick A.. Tvangslidelser. I: Håndbok i kognitiv terapi. Gyldendal Akademisk 2008 ISBN 9788205371248. s. 225-246

Hans M. Nordahl

Nordahl, Hans Morten. Personlighetsforstyrrelser. I: Håndbok i kognitiv terapi. Gyldendal Akademisk 2008 ISBN 9788205371248. s. 379-402

Roger Hagen

Gråwe, Rolf W; Hagen, Roger. Kombinert rusmiddelavhengighet og alvorlige psykoselidelser. I: Håndbok i kognitiv terapi. Gyldendal Akademisk 2008 ISBN 9788205371248. s. 513-531

Tore C. Stiles

Sættem, Liv S.; Stiles, Tore C. Kroniske smerter. I: Håndbok i kognitiv terapi. Gyldendal Akademisk 2008 ISBN 9788205371248. s. 590-616

Tore Aune

Fredriksen, Annelise; Aune, Tore; Aarseth, Jon. Kognitiv terapi for barn og unge. I: Håndbok i kognitiv terapi. Gyldendal Akademisk 2008 ISBN 9788205371248. s. 617-651

Jon Aarseth

Kognitiv terrapi er en populær og etterspurt terapiform både internasjonalt og i Norge. Terapiformen, som også kalles kognitiv atferdsterapi, anvendes i stadig nye sammenhenger. Det er utviklet tilnærminger som er spesielt tilrettelagt for en rekke psykiske og somatiske lidelser. Håndbok i kognitiv terapi viser noe av denne bredden, og bidragsyterne er blant de ledende fagpersonene på sine områder

Torgersen, Terje; Gjervan, Bjørn; Rasmussen, Kirsten. Treatment of adult ADHD: Is current knowledge useful to clinicians? Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 2008;4(1)

Kirsten Rasmussen

Psychostimulant drugs have for decades been considered the cornerstone of ADHD treatment. Non-stimulant drugs have also been reported successful. However, many controlled studies exclude patients with comorbidities typical for patients seen in clinical setting. Many patients are also considered non-responders to medication. Current knowledge might not be directly useful to clinicians. The present article reviews the literature on pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatment in adult ADHD emphasizing comorbidity and other clinically important factors, as well as ADHD specific outcomes. Thirty-three relevant studies of pharmacotherapy and three studies of psychotherapy were included. Most subjects had little current comorbidity, but some studies included subjects with substance use disorder. Significant effect of treatment on ADHD symptoms was found in most studies using pharmacotherapy and all studies of psychotherapy. Both positive and negative effects on comorbid anxiety and depression measures were reported. Pharmacotherapy did not seem to have effect on substance use disorder. Few pharmacotherapy studies conducted any long-term follow-up; two studies that did, found that most subjects had discontinued medication. A clear-cut dose-respons relationship was not substanciated. In conclusion, clinicians have good support for both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatment of ADHD in adults, but should take additional measures to deal with comorbidities as well as treatment adherence.

Lars Wichstrøm

von Soest, Tilmann; Wichstrøm, Lars. The impact of becoming a mother on eating problems. International Journal of Eating Disorders 2008;41(3):215-223

DOI: 10.1002/eat.20493

Objective: This study examines the relationship between becoming a mother and changes in eating problems.

Method: A sample of 1,206 initially childless Norwegian women was followed over a six-year period and growth curve analyses were conducted.

Results: Participants who became mothers over the course of the study showed a greater reduction in eating problems compared to still childless women. This relationship could be explained by a corresponding decrease in alcohol usage and impulsiveness in mothers compared to childless women. At the same time, appearance satisfaction increased comparatively less in mothers, resulting in turn in a reduction of the effect of motherhood on changes in eating problems.

Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that motherhood has on the whole a positive effect on eating problems.

Gygax, Pascal; Gabriel, Ute; Sarrasin, Oriane; Oakhill, Jane; Garnham, Alan. Generically intended, but specifically interpreted: When beauticians, musicians, and mechanics are all men. Language and cognitive processes 2008;23(3):464-485

Ute Gabriel

DOI: 10.1080/01690960701702035

The influence of stereotype and grammatical information (masculine intended as generic) on the representation of gender in language was investigated using a sentence evaluation paradigm. The first sentence introduced a role name (e.g., The spies came out ...) and the second sentence contained explicit information about the gender of one or more of the characters (e.g., ... of the women ...). The experiment was conducted in French, German, and English. In contrast to English, stereotypicality of role names had no influence on readers' male biased representations in French and German, where interpretations were dominated by the masculinity of the masculine (allegedly) intended as generic.

Lennart Sjöberg

Sjøberg, Lennart. Antagonism, Trust and Perceived Risk. Risk Management: An International Journal 2008;10(1):32-55

DOI: 10.1057/palgrave.rm.8250039

Components of social trust were studied with regard to 23 different actors or organizations. Perceived antagonism was found to be an important factor in social trust, getting a higher (negative) weight than the traditional trust components such as honesty or competence. The relation between competence and trust was moderated by the level of perceived antagonism. With a high level of antagonism, competence was a negative factor. Antagonism was more important than social trust in accounting for perceived risk. In a second study, concerned with nuclear waste, SEM models were estimated and epistemic trust (trust in science as distinguished from trust in experts and scientists) was found to be an important factor in accounting for perceived risk and acceptance of a nuclear waste repository. Antagonism also contributed to accounting for perceived risk. The role of social trust was minor. Its effects were mediated by epistemic trust but it accounted for only part of the variance of epistemic trust. Implications for risk communication are discussed.

Nanna S. Kayed

Kayed, Nanna Sønnichsen; Farstad, Hanne; van der Meer, Audrey. Preterm infants' timing strategies to optical collisions. Early Human Development 2008;84:381-388

Audrey van der Meer

DOI: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2007.10.006

Background: A virtual object approaching on a collision course will elicit defensive blinking in infants. Previous research has shown that when precisely timing their blinks, full-term infants shift from using a strategy based on visual angle/angular velocity to a strategy based on time between 22 and 30 weeks of age.

Aim: To investigate which timing strategy preterm infants use to determine when to make the defensive blink.

Methods: Eight preterm infants were tested at 26 weeks, corrected for prematurity. For three of these infants, longitudinal data at 22, 26, and 30 weeks were available. The virtual object approached the infants with different constant velocities and constant accelerations.

Results: At 26 weeks, three infants blinked when the virtual object's visual angle reached a threshold value causing them to have problems with fast, accelerating approaches. Four infants blinked when the virtual object was a certain time away, allowing them to blink in time on all approach conditions. One infant stood out because he relied on a timing strategy based on angular velocity on all three test sessions, causing him to blink late on a large number of trials even at 30 weeks.

Conclusion: As good timing is essential for successful interaction with the environment, the inability to switch from a timing strategy that is prone to errors to a strategy that enables successful defensive blinking reflects lack of flexibility to adjust appropriately to local circumstances. This might be an early indication of perceptuo-motor problems that warrants further investigation.

Ringdal, Gerd Inger; Ringdal, Kristen; Simkus, Albert Andrew. War experiences and war-related distress in Bosnia and Herzegovina eight years after war. Croatian Medical Journal 2008;49(1):75-86

Gerd Inger Ringdal

Aim: To examine the relationship between war experiences and war-related distress in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Methods: The survey was performed in the late 2003 on a representative sample of 3313 respondents. The face-to-face interviews included 15 items on war-related distress and 24 items on war experiences. From these items we developed the War-related Distress Scale, the Direct War Experiences Scale, and the Indirect War Experiences Scale. Regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between war-related distress symptoms and war experiences variables, controlling for a range of other variables.

Results: Almost half of the respondents did not report any war-related distress symptoms, while about 13% reported 7 or more symptoms. Direct war experiences had a significant effect on war-related distress even eight years after the war, while indirect war experiences showed no significant effect on war-related distress. We found that marital status weakly decreased war-related distress, while household size increased it.

Conclusion: Direct war experiences seem to have a long-lasting traumatic effect on a substantial number of residents of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Spada, Marcantonio M.; Wells, Adrian. Metacognitive beliefs about alcohol use: Development and validation of two self-report scales. Addictive Behaviours 2008;33(4):515-527

DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2007.10.011

The goal of this research was to develop clinical assessment tools of positive and negative metacognitive beliefs about alcohol use. In Study 1 we constructed two scales and conducted preliminary factor analyses. Studies 2 and 3 investigated the predictive validity and temporal stability of the scales. Study 4 examined the factor structure, predictive validity and classification accuracy of the scales in a clinical sample. The Positive Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (PAMS) and the Negative Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (NAMS) were shown to possess good psychometric properties, as well as predictive validity and classification accuracy, in both clinical and community populations. The scales may aid future research into problem drinking and facilitate clinical assessment and case formulation.

Per Øystein Saksvik

Saksvik, Per Øystein; Nytrø, Kjell; Tvedt, Sturle Danielsen. Sunn endring i organisasjoner. Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening 2008 (3):295-300

Kjell Nytrø

Sturle D. Tvedt

Alle berøres av ulike typer endringer og omstillinger i arbeidslivet. Noen til stadighet, andre en sjelden gang. Omstilling er nødvendig for å møte utfordringer i et stadig mer globalisert arbeidsliv. Men blir alle disse omstillingene gjennomført på en god måte? Produserer vi unødvendig utrygghet og bekymring blant de ansatte?

Lennart Sjöberg

Sjøberg, Lennart; Herber, Misse Wester. Too much trust in (social) trust? The importance of epistemic concerns and perceived antagonism.International Journal of Global Environmental Issues 2008;8(1-2):30-44

DOI: 10.1504/IJGENVI.2008.017258

Social trust has often been claimed to be an important determinant of perceived risk, a finding that, if true, has important consequences for risk communication. However, the empirical basis of the alleged relationship between social trust and risk perception is weak. Previous work has pointed to other facets of trust as being more important: trust in science and technology per se (epistemic trust) as well as belief in the existence of opposed interests and goals (antagonism). In the present paper, these notions are further developed and empirically tested on data on trust (social and epistemic), risk perception, attitudes, voting intentions, trust and antagonism in siting a local high-level nuclear waste repository. Data were obtained in the spring of 2005 from two Swedish municipalities where site investigations were being carried out in preparation for building a repository for spent nuclear fuel. It was found that social trust had less weight in perceived risk than epistemic trust and perceived antagonism. Similar results were obtained when the dependent variables were attitude to the repository, and intention to vote pro or con a local repository in a future local referendum on the issue. Implications of the findings for risk communication are discussed.

Spada, Marcantonio M.; Nikcevic, Ana V.; Moneta, Giovanni B.; Wells, Adrian. Metacognition, perceived stress, and negative emotion . Personality and Individual Differences 2008;44(5):1172-1181

DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2007.11.010

The present study explored the relationships between metacognition, perceived stress and negative emotion. A convenience sample of 420 participants completed the following questionnaires: metacognitions questionnaire 30 (MCQ-30), perceived stress scale (PSS), and hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). A cross-sectional design was adopted and data analysis consisted of correlation and structural equation modeling analyses. Metacognition was found to be positively and significantly correlated with both perceived stress and negative emotion (anxiety and depression). Positive and significant correlations were also observed between perceived stress, anxiety and depression. Structural equation modeling was used to test a moderation model in which metacognition moderates the relationship between perceived stress and negative emotion. The results supported this hypothesis. These preliminary results would seem to suggest that individual differences in metacognition are relevant to understanding the link between perceived stress and negative emotion.

Gabriel, Ute; Greve, Werner. Strafbedurfnisse und Strafeinstellungen - Attitudes Towards and Demands for Punishment. In: Handbuch der Rechtspsychologie. Hogrefe & Huber Publishers 2008. ISBN 978-3-8017-1851-0. p. 467-476

Ute Gabriel

Gerd Inger Ringdal

Ringdal, Gerd Inger; Ringdal, Kristen; Simkus, Albert Andrew. War-Related Distress Among Kosovar Albanians. Journal of loss & trauma 2008;13(1):59-71

DOI: 10.1080/15325020701741781

This study focuses on war experiences, war-related distress, and health. It is based on face-to-face interviews in a representative survey of 1,000 Kosovar Albanians. Results show that direct war experiences have a stronger impact on war-related distress and health than indirect war experiences. The strongest predictor among crucial single experiences was being held prisoner of war. Among Kosovo-Albanians, direct war experiences may have had a strong effect on war-related distress, even 4 years after the end of the war.

Almerud, S; Alapack, Richard Joseph; Fridlund, B; Ekebergh, M. Beleaguered by technology: care in technologically intense environments. Nursing Philosophy 2008;9(1):55-61

Richard Joseph Alapack

DOI: 10.1111/j.1466-769X.2007.00332.x

Modern technology has enabled the use of new forms of information in the care of critically ill patients. In intensive care units (ICUs), technology can simultaneously reduce the lived experience of illness and magnify the objective dimensions of patient care. The aim of this study, based upon two empirical studies, is to find from a philosophical point of view a more comprehensive understanding for the dominance of technology within intensive care. Along with caring for critically ill patients, technology is part of the ICU staff's everyday life. Both technology and caring relationships are of indispensable value. Tools are useful, but technology can never replace the closeness and empathy of the human touch. It is a question of harmonizing the demands of subjectivity with objective signs. The challenge for caregivers in ICU is to know when to heighten the importance of the objective and measurable dimensions provided by technology and when to magnify the patients’ lived experiences, and to live and deal with the ambiguity of the technical dimension of care and the human side of nursing.

Audrey van der Meer

van der Meer, Audrey; Fallet, Gjertrud; Weel, Frederikus van der. Perception of structured optic flow and random visual motion in infants and adults: a high-density EEG study. Experimental Brain Research 2008;186(3):493-502

Ruud van der Weel

DOI: 10.1007/s00221-007-1251-2

Electroencephalogram (EEG) was used in 8-month-old infants and adults to study brain electrical activity as a function of perception of structured optic flow and random visual motion. A combination of visual evoked potential (VEP) analyses and analyses of temporal spectral evolution (TSE: time-dependent spectral power) was carried out. Significant differences were found for the N2 component of VEP for optic flow versus random visual motion within and between groups. Both adults and infants showed shorter latencies for structured optic flow than random visual motion, and infants showed longer latencies, particularly for random visual motion, and larger amplitudes than adults. Both groups also showed significant differences in induced activity when TSE of the two motion stimuli (optic flow and random visual motion) was compared with TSE of a static dot pattern. Infants showed an induced decrease in the amplitudes in theta-band frequency, while adults showed an induced increase in beta-band frequency. Differences in induced activity for the two motion stimuli could, however, not be observed. Brain activity related to motion stimuli is different for infants and adults and the differences are observed both in VEPs and in induced activity of the EEG. To investigate how changes in locomotor development are related to accompanying changes in brain activity associated with visual motion perception, more data of infants with different experiences in self-produced locomotion are required.

Hroar Klempe

Klempe, Sven Hroar.Fra opplysning til eksperiment. Om psykologiens oppkomst fra Wolff til Wundt. Fagbokforlaget 2008. (ISBN 978-82-450-0662-9) 222 s.

Fra opplysning til eksperiment skisserer noen av de glemte forutsetningene for oppkomsten av den eksperimentelle psykologien. Den trekker linjene tilbake til Christian Wolff som gav ut boken om den empiriske psykologi i 1732. Forfatteren viser hvordan det går en nesten ubrutt linje fra Wolff til Wundt, med en forankring i Leibniz og et utsving til Kant. Psykologiens nullpunkt er ikke 1879, men 1732. Fagdisipliner som psykologi og estetikk har en felles rot i nettopp Wolff og Baumgarten, og det er den moderne estetikkens begrep om sansning som ligger til grunn for den eksperimentelle psykologiens oppkomst. Wundts sterke interesse for musikk er først og fremst faglig motivert. Og det finnes to nordiske representanter for denne fremveksten av den eksperimentelle psykologien: Kierkegaard og Welhaven. Dermed kan også Wundt forstås som en fremtredende representant for en antihegeliansk form for tysk idealisme.

Birthe L. Knizek

Hjelmeland, Heidi Marie; Akotia, Charity; Owens, Vicki; Knizek, Birthe Loa; Nordvik, Hilmar; Schroeder, Rose; Kinyanda, Eugene. Self-Reported Suicidal Behavior and Attitudes Toward Suicide and Suicide Prevention Among Psychology Students in Ghana, Uganda, and Norway. Crisis 2008;29(1):20-31

Hilmar Nordvik

DOI: 10.1027/0227-5910.29.1.20

Self-reported suicidal behavior and attitudes toward suicide in psychology students are reported and compared in Ghana, Uganda, and Norway. Small differences only were found in own suicidal behavior. However, experience of suicidal behavior in the surroundings was more common in Uganda than in Ghana and Norway. Although differences were found between the three countries in attitudes toward suicide, which emphasizes the need for culture-sensitive research and prevention, many of the differences were not as big as expected. The most pronounced difference was that the Norwegian students were more reluctant to take a stand on these questions compared to their African counterparts. Some differences were also found between the two African countries. The implications of the results for suicide prevention in Africa are discussed.

Almerud, S; Alapack, Richard Joseph; Fridlund, B; Ekebergh, M. Caught in an artificial split: A phenomenological study of being a caregiver in the technologically intense environment. Intensive & Critical Care Nursing 2008;24(2):130-136

Richard Joseph Alapack

DOI: 10.1016/j.iccn.2007.08.003

A symbiotic relationship exists between technology and caring, however, technologically advanced environments challenge caregivers. The aim of this study is to uncover the meaning of being a caregiver in the technologically intense environment. Ten open-ended interviews with intensive care personnel comprise the data. A phenomenological analysis shows that ambiguity abounds in the setting. The act of responsibly reading and regulating instruments easily melds the patient and the machinery into one clinical picture. The fusion skews the balance between objective distance and interpersonal closeness. The exciting captivating lure of technological gadgets seduces the caregivers and lulls them into a fictive sense of security and safety. It is mind-boggling and heart-rending to juggle ‘moments’ of slavish mastery and security menaced by insecurity in the act of monitoring a machine while caring for a patient. Whenever the beleaguered caregiver splits technique from human touch, ambiguity decays into ambivalence. Caring and technology become polarized. Everyone loses. Caregiver competence wanes; patients suffer. The intensive care unit should be technologically sophisticated, but also build-in a disclosive space where solace, trust, and reassurance naturally happen. Caring professionals need to balance state-of-the-art technology with integrated and comprehensive care and harmonize the demands of subjectivity with objective signs.

Audrey van der Meer

van der Meer, Audrey; Ramstad, Marte; Weel, Frederikus van der. Choosing the shortest way to mum: Auditory guided rotation in 6- to 9-month-old infants . Infant Behavior and Development 2008;31(2):207-216

Ruud van der Weel

DOI: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2007.10.007

The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of auditory information for rotation of the shortest way in twelve 6- to 9-month-old sighted infants. Behavior was manipulated by means of an auditory stimulus presented in four different directional angles (90°, 112.5°, 135°, and 157.5°) to the right and to the left behind the infants, and in one non-directional angle (180°). Infants lay in a prone position and had magnetic trackers fastened to the head and body which measured their rotation direction and angular velocity. The results showed that infants not only consistently chose the shortest over the longest way, but also rotated with a higher peak angular velocity as the angle to be covered between themselves and the goal increased. The results did not show significant preferences for one particular rotation direction. The study can contribute to the understanding of the auditory system as a functional listening system where auditory information is used as a perceptual source for prospectively guiding behavior in the environment.

Hans M. Nordahl

Bjerkeset, Ottar; Nordahl, Hans Morten; Larsson, Sara; Dahl, Alv A.; Linaker, Olav Morten. A 4-year follow-up study of syndromal and sub-syndromal anxiety and depression symptoms in the general population . Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 2008; 43(3):192-199

DOI: 10.1007/s00127-007-0289-6

Background: Our aims were to examine the stability of self-rated anxiety and depression symptoms and the predictors for change in case-level status after 4 years in a general population sample.

Methods: Prospective cohort study. Based on the total score on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression rating scale (HADS-T) in HUNT 2 (1995¨C1997), three groups were identified: Level 3 (n = 654, score ¡Ý 25 points), Level 2 (n = 654, score 19¨C24 points), and Level 1 (n = 1,308, score < 19 points). The groups were followed up with a mailed questionnaire after 4 years.

Results: Among the 1,326 (53% response rate) who participated in the follow-up, 816 (62%) had not changed symptom level. The number of participants that had crossed the HADS-T caseness level (19 points) was the same in both directions. In non-cases at baseline (Level 1), lack of friends (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.28¨C4.27, P = 0.006) and previous episodes of depression (OR 2.90, 95% CI 1.76¨C4.78, P < 0.001) predicted HADS-T caseness at follow-up, while higher educational level (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.46¨C0.96, P = 0.028) protected from developing caseness level of anxiety and depression. In HADS-T cases (Levels 2 and 3) at baseline, previous episode(s) of depression (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.19¨C0.68, P = 0.002) and being unemployed (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.34¨C1.00, P = 0.050) predicted HADS-T caseness at follow-up, whereas a higher educational level (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.24¨C2.70, P = 0.002) was associated with remission from HADS-T caseness after 4 years.

Conclusion: Though symptom fluctuation was considerable, conventional HADS-T caseness (¡Ý19 points) was a reliable and valid predictor for high long-term symptom stability of anxiety and depression in our general population sample.