Department of Psychology: Publications 2009

Truls Ryum

Ryum, Truls; Hagen, Roger; Nordahl, Hans Morten; Vogel, Patrick A.; Stiles, Tore C. Perceived group climate as a predictor of long-term outcome in a randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioural group therapy for patients with comorbid psychiatric disorders. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 2009;37(5):497-510

Roger Hagen

DOI: 10.1017/S1352465809990208

Hans M. Nordahl

Background: Research on group therapy indicates that various dimensions of the helpful relationship qualities (cohesion, climate, empathy, alliance) are associated with outcome. However, the use of a wide variety of empirical scales makes comparisons between studies as well as generalizations somewhat difficult. Although a generic, trans-theoretical measure such as the Group Climate Questionnaire-Short Form (GCQ-S; MacKenzie, 1983) is available and applicable to most treatment conditions, it has never been tested with cognitive-behavioural group therapy.

Aims: To investigate perceived dimensions of group climate (engagement, avoidance and conflict) as predictors of long-term (1 year) follow-up in a manualized, structured time-limited cognitive-behavioural group therapy (CBGT) for out-patients with comorbid psychiatric disorders.

Methods: Data from 27 patients were analysed using hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Outcome measures used were general symptomatic complaints (SCL-90-R), interpersonal problems (IIP-64), specific mood- and anxiety symptoms (BDI; BAI) and early maladaptive schemas (YSQ). After controlling for scores on the relevant dependent variables at both intake and treatment termination, dimensions of group climate measured close to termination were entered as predictors in separate analyses.

Results: Higher ratings of engagement were associated with reduced scores on all outcome measures at follow-up, except for anxiety symptoms (BAI). Higher ratings of avoidance were associated with lower anxiety symptoms at follow up, whereas ratings of conflict were unrelated to all follow-up scores.

Conclusions: The results provide partial support for the use of the GCQ-S as a predictor of long-term follow-up in CBGT, and highlights perceived engagement as the most important dimension. Clinical implications are discussed.

Patrick A. Vogel

Tore C. Stiles


Rasmussen, Kirsten; Nesset, W.; Torgersen, T; Gjervan, Bjørn. Diagnosen ADHD og vurderingsgrunnlaget for erstatningskrav. Tidsskrift for erstatningsrett 2009;6(1-2):129-136

Kirsten Rasmussen


Kropotov, Yury; Ponomarev, Valery A.. Decomposing N2 NOGO wave of event-related potentials into independent components. NeuroReport 2009;20(18):1592-1596

DOI: 10.1097/WNR.0b013e3283309cbd

Inconsistencies in previous attempts to localize the N2 wave in the GO/NOGO task led to the present investigation. The inconsistencies were probably because of heterogeneity of psychological operations involved in GO/NOGO tasks. We applied the independent component analysis to a collection of individual event-related potentials in response to GO and NOGO cues in the two stimulus visual GO/NOGO task. The selected six independent components with different topographies and time courses constituted 87% of the artifact-free signal variance. Three of them were loaded into the frontally distributed N2 wave. According to standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography these three independent components were generated in the supplementary motor cortex, left angular gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex.


Stig Hollup

Lagopoulos, Jim; Xu, Jian; Rasmussen jr., Inge-Andre; Vik, Alexandra; Malhi, Gin S.; Eliassen, Carl Fredrik; Arntsen, Ingrid Edith; Sæther, Jardar G; Hollup, Stig Arvid; Holen, Are; Davanger, Svend; Ellingsen, Øyvind. Increased Theta and Alpha EEG Activity During Nondirective Meditation. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2009;15(11):1187-1192

DOI: 10.1089/acm.2009.0113

In recent years, there has been significant uptake of meditation and related relaxation techniques, as a means of alleviating stress and maintaining good health. Despite its popularity, little is known about the neural mechanisms by which meditation works, and there is a need for more rigorous investigations of the underlying neurobiology. Several electroencephalogram (EEG) studies have reported changes in spectral band frequencies during meditation inspired by techniques that focus on concentration, and in comparison much less has been reported on mindfulness and nondirective techniques that are proving to be just as popular.


Pedersen, Per Bernhard; Kolstad, Arnulf. De-institutionalisation and trans-institutionalisation - changing trends of inpatient care in Norwegian mental health institutions 1950-2007. International Journal of Mental Health Systems 2009;3(28)

Arnulf Kolstad

DOI: 10.1186/1752-4458-3-28

Over the last decades mental health services in most industrialised countries have been characterised by de-institutionalisation and different kinds of redistribution of patients. The downsizing of the large psychiatric institutions, especially the psychiatric hospitals, took place in steps, and the national reforms varied in their pace, fashion and in their consequences. This article will examine the historical trends in Norway, identify the patterns of change in service settings and discuss why the mental health services have been dramatically transformed in less than sixty years. The consequences for patients as well as for the health services providers are also commented upon.


Tor Erik Nysæter

Nysæter, Tor Erik; Langvik, Eva Oddrun; Berthelsen, Mona; Nordvik, Hilmar. Interpersonal problems and personality traits: The relation between IIP-64C and NEO-FFI. Nordic Psychology 2009;61(3):82-93

Eva Langvik

DOI: 10.1027/1901-2276.61.3.82

Hilmar Nordvik

This article re-examines the relation between The Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-64C) and the Five-Factor Model of personality, using both normative and statistic ipsative scores in the partitioning of the IIP-64C item set. A non-clinical sample (n = 132) completed the NEO-FFI personality inventory and the IIP-64C. In accordance with previous studies, Agreeableness and Extraversion were linked with IIP-64C, regardless of type of partitioning of the IIP-64C item set. Neuroticism had a strong association with interpersonal problems based on normative scores, but statistic ipsation removed this association. While the normative IIP-64C scores did not confirm the structural properties of the Circumplex model, the ipsatized scores did. In conclusion, the use of statistical ipsation of the IIP-64C could be a useful addition to traditional personality assessment procedures.


Grin-Yatsenko, Vera A.; Baas, Ineke; Ponomarev, Valery A.; Kropotov, Yury. EEG Power Spectra at Early Stages of Depressive Disorders. Journal of clinical neurophysiology 2009;26(6):401-406

DOI: 10.1097/WNP.0b013e3181c298fe

In previous quantitative EEG studies of depression, mostly patients with a lifetime history of depressive disorders were reported. This study examined quantitative EEG parameters obtained in the early stages of depression in comparison with age-matched healthy controls. EEG was recorded using two different montages in eyes closed and eyes open resting states. A significant increase in spectrum power in theta (4-7.5 Hz), alpha (7.5-14 Hz), and beta (14-20 Hz) frequency bands was found in depressed patients at parietal and occipital sites, both in eyes closed and eyes open conditions. These results suggest that an increase in slow (theta and alpha) activity in the EEG pattern may reflect a decreased cortical activation in these brain regions. Enhancement of beta power may correlate with anxiety symptoms that most likely play an important role on the onset of depressive disorder.


Lennart Sjøberg

Sjøberg, Lennart; Drottz Sjøberg, Britt-Marie. Public risk perception of nuclear waste. International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management 2009;11(3-4):264-296

Britt-Marie Drottz Sjöberg

DOI: 10.1504/IJRAM.2009.023156

Nuclear waste has emerged as a very salient issue in the nuclear power debate. In the present study, a broad range of risk perception and attitude dimensions concerned with nuclear waste was investigated. It was found that most respondents from the general public were not willing to accept a local high-level nuclear waste repository in their home region. Nuclear waste was seen, by the public, as a very important issue. Regression analysis of perceived nuclear waste risk yielded a high level of explained variance (about 65%). Fear of radiation appeared to be an important determinant of the perceived risk and so was attitude to nuclear power, risk sensitivity and a pooled measure of the traditional psychometric dimensions of risk perception. A structural equations model of acceptance of a local repository was quite successful in explaining acceptance.


Klæth, Julie Rendum; Hagen, Roger. Sammenhengen mellom barndomstraumer og senere utvikling av psykotiske lidelser. Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening 2009;46(11):1049-1055

Roger Hagen

Psykoselidelser har tradisjonelt vært forklart med biologiske og genetiske faktorer, men i senere tid har fokus på psykosers etiologi blitt flyttet mot miljømessige faktorer. Det er i den forbindelse sett en sterkere relasjon enn tidligere antatt mellom barndomstraumer og utvikling av psykotiske symptomer


Giæver, Fay. Looking Forwards and Back: Exploring Anticipative Versus Retrospective Emotional Change-Experiences. Journal of Change Management 2009;9(4):419-434

DOI: 10.1080/14697010903360616

This article aims to explore the emotional experience of anticipating versus retrospectively looking back on organizational change. This follows the insight that employees inevitably, and at any point in time, hold histories and anticipated futures. Hence it is argued that contrasting and exploring anticipative and retrospective emotional change-experiences indepth may provide insight into, and explain the ways in which these experiences potentially differ, as well as the ways in which they are tied to the wider organizational and societal context of change. It is argued that previous contributions to the managerial and change literature on employees' emotional change-experiences adopt a limited perspective through undermining the role played by context or person-situation interactions. A qualitative study from the Norwegian hospital environment is presented, where a selected group of nursing staff were interviewed regarding their emotional experiences of change at two points in time; one month prior to the anticipated implementation of a new electronic care planning system, and one year after. A wide range of different emotional experiences, both positive and negative, were reported at both points in time. These emotional experiences related to quite specific local situations and aspects of the changes and change process, as well as to the wider and societal context of change.


Ingunn Hagen

Brandtzæg, Petter Bae; Staksrud, Elisabeth; Hagen, Ingunn; Wold, Thomas. Norwegian Children's Experiences of Cyberbullying When Using Different Technological Platforms. Journal of Children and Media 2009;3(4):349-365

DOI: 10.1080/17482790903233366

Cyberbullying is an emerging threat to children in Europe. However, European research into this topic is scant and knowledge of it incomplete. In this study, “cyberbullying” involves the use of different technological platforms to support hostile behavior by an individual or group that harm others. The article examines whether children's experience of cyberbullying differs according to technological platforms and socio-demographic variables. Results from two Norwegian studies show that cyberbullying most often occurs via e-mail, and that girls and frequent users of the internet are more likely to encounter cyberbullying. Most cyberbullying encountered in social networking sites was sexual and took place in communities in which the users are anonymous. This was most often encountered by teenage girls and perpetrated by adults.


Wells, Adrian; Carter, KEP. Maladaptive Thought Control Strategies in Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder, and nonpatient Groups and Relationships with Trait Anxiety. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy 2009;2(3):224-234


von Soest, Tilmann; Wichstrøm, Lars. Gender Differences in the Development of Dieting From Adolescence to Early Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study. Journal of research on adolescence 2009;19(3):509-529

Lars Wichstrøm

DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-7795.2009.00605.x

This study examines gender differences in the development of dieting among a representative sample of 1,368 Norwegian boys and girls. The respondents were followed over 3 time points from ages 13/14 to 20/21. Latent growth curve analyses were conducted showing that girls' dieting scores increased while boys' scores remained constant. Gender differences in the development of dieting could be explained neither by differences in the development of appearance dissatisfaction nor by changes in relation to parents. In contrast, the dieting differences between boys and girls could be partially explained by a greater increase in emotional problems among girls compared with boys. Further research is needed, targeting in particular younger age groups, in order to acquire knowledge on whether appearance dissatisfaction serves as mediator of gender differences in dieting at other ages.


Anne Iversen

Iversen, Anne. Konstruksjon av identiteter i kunnskapsarbeid. Nordiske organisasjonsstudier 2009;11(4):29-50


Söderström, Kerstin; Skårderud, Finn. Minding the Baby - Mentalization-based treatment in families with parental substance use disorder: Theoretical framework. Nordic Psychology 2009;61(3):47-65

DOI: 10.1027/1901-2276.61.3.47

The primary aim of this article is to give a theoretical and empirical background for clinical interventions in family-oriented treatment for substance use disorders. The article refers to an ongoing research project, which is based on the concepts of mentalization and parental reflective functioning. Theory of mentalization and attachment theory is explored as explanatory tools of both addictive problem and risk/resilience factors in offspring. Mentalization is defined as the competence to envision mental states in self and others and to understand behaviour in terms of mental states. Substance use is discussed as clinical expressions of impaired mentalizing skills and disorders of state- and affect regulation. Parental reflective function particularly refers to parents’ competences to interpret the mind of their own infant or child. Parental reflective functioning, as ‘minding the baby’, promotes sensitive care, which again serves to protect the infant and the immature brain from potentially dangerous stress and physiological arousal. Substance use often makes the parent ‘absent-minded’ and thus imposes a risk of impaired interactions between caregivers and the extra vulnerable substance exposed child.Without a lifeline to the caregivers’ mind, the development of self regulation and social competences is endangered. High-risk families need substantial support to break the burden of intergenerational transmission of internal representations of caregiving experiences, and to promote good enough care for the infant. The mentalization-based treatment programs (MBT) briefly outlined here, propose a long-term multidisciplinary treatment and follow-up.


Hjemdal, Odin. Resilience and common factors in psychotherapy how can they be a guide for the development of coping and mental health.. I: Advances in Psychology Research, volum 63. Nova Science Publishers, Inc. 2009 ISBN 9781608760503.

Odin Hjemdal

Resilience research has principally identified protective factors that contribute to adaptation in the face of adversity. Clinical research has identified common factors as important in achieving recovery with clinical samples. Interestingly resilient and clinical samples have often experienced comparable adversities, but have very different developmental trajectories and outcomes. Equally interesting are the similarities and differences between protective factors associated with resilience and the common factors from clinical research. Important themes in both research areas are interpersonal competence and relations, structure, attributions and cognitive flexibility. These communalities may be of importance in improving adaptation and coping among clinical samples.


Knut Hestad

Hestad, Knut; Aukrust, P.; Tønseth, S; Reitan, Solveig Klæbo. Depression has a strong relationship to alterations in the immune, endocrine ad neural system. Current Psychiatry Reviews 2009;5(4):287-297

Epidemiological findings indicate a connection between depressive symptoms and changes in status of the immune system in depressed patients. This raises the possibility of causative connections. Theories on mechanisms for interactions between immune and affective systems - directly and via endocrine system - are evolving. Such hypothesized causative connections are supported by several findings. First, in depressed patients changes in the status of the immune system in vivo and ex vivo are seen. Also, depressive symptoms are seen in patients with altered immune status (physiologically, pathologically or chemically induced). Knowledge in this field may have implications regarding psychiatric follow up of physically ill people suffering from diseases caused by an altered immune system (long lasting infections, autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivity disorders) as well as disorders for which treatment and prognoses depends on the immune system (infections, cancer). Similarly, medical treatment of depressed patients may be adjusted by more specific knowledge about the interaction between neuroimmunology and depression. Important findings and the present knowledge and theories are reviewed.


Boring, Ronald R.; Roth, Emilie; Straeter, Oliver; Laumann, Karin; Blackman, Harold S.; Oxstrand, Johanna; Persensky, Julius J.. Is human reliabilty relevant to human factors?. I: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2009 ISBN 978-0-945289-36-4. s. 610-614


Per Øystein Saksvik

Saksvik, Per Øystein; Tvedt, Sturle Danielsen. Leading change in a healthy way. Scandinavian Journal of Organizational Psychology 2009;1(1):20-28

Sturle D. Tvedt

The objective of the article is to discuss how lower-level leaders, i.e., middle managers, deal with the implementation of organiza- tional change and to identify their behavior as in accordance with the claims of a new Work Environment Act in Norway, which defines an optimal and healthy organizational change process. The article presents some of our own findings about healthy lead- er behavior in an organizational change context. In this article, we present and discuss change in a Scandinavian and Norwe- gian context, the impact of the change process, and the relation between change and leadership theories and perspectives. We found that the main concepts of the law; information, participa- tion, and competence development could be operationalized and understood better in daily practice through the following catego- ries: awareness of local norms and diversity among employees in the perception and reactions to change efforts, early role clarifica- tion, manager availability, and using constructive conflicts. The middle manger role was central in this and in a parallel study good leaders were characterized by the embracing of change.


Spada, Marcantonio M.; Wells, Adrian. A metacognitive model of problem drinking. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy 2009;16(5):383-393

DOI: 10.1002/cpp.620

Previous research has demonstrated significant relationships between metacognition and problem drinking. In this study, we aimed to investigate further these relationships by testing the fit of a metacognitive model of problem drinking in a sample of 174 problem drinkers from a university student population. In the model presented, it is proposed that positive metacognitive beliefs about alcohol use and negative affect lead to alcohol use as a means of affect regulation. Positive metacognitive beliefs about alcohol use are also associated with a reduction in metacognitive monitoring which further contributes to alcohol use. Once alcohol use is initiated it brings a disruption in metacognitive monitoring leading to a continuation in drinking. Following a drinking episode, alcohol use is appraised as both uncontrollable and dangerous, which in turn strengthens negative metacognitive beliefs about alcohol use. These beliefs are associated with an escalation of negative affect, which acts as a trigger for further drinking. The specified relationships among these variables were examined by testing the fit of a path model. Results of this analysis indicated a good model fit consistent with predictions. The conceptual and clinical implications of these data are discussed.


O'Neill, Brian; Hagen, Ingunn. Media literacy. I: Kids online: Opportunities and risks for children. Policy Press 2009 ISBN 9781847424389. s. 229-239

Ingunn Hagen

Across Europe and beyond, the promotion of media literacy for both children and adults has acquired an important public urgency. Traditional literacy is no longer seen to be sufficient for participation in today's society. Citizens need to be media literate, it is claimed, to enable them to cope more effectively with the flood of information in today's highly mediated societies. As teachers, politicians and policy makers everywhere struggle with this rapid shift in media culture, greater responsibility is placed on citizens for their own welfare in the new media environment. Media literacy is therefore all the more essential in enabling citizens to make sense of the opportunities available to them and to be alerted to the risks involved.

How media literacy might be achieved is the subject of this chapter, and three main themes are addressed. First, we examine how media literacy has been defined with particular reference to the growing importance of digital literacy. Second, we examine how media literacy has been adopted within policy frameworks as a response to rapid technological change. Third, we critique the 'technological literacy' that dominates much of the current policy agenda (Hasebrink et al, 2007), and argue for a new approach based on better knowledge about children and young people's media and internet habits.


Wold, Thomas; Aristodemou, Elena; Dunkels, Elza; Laouris, Yiannis. Inappropriate content. I: Kids online Opportunities and risks for children. Policy Press 2009 ISBN 9781847424389. s. 135-146


Papageorgiou, Costas; Wells, Adrian. A Prospective Test of the Clinical Metacognitive Model of Rumination and Depression. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy 2009;2(2):123-131

DOI: 10.1521/ijct.2009.2.2.123

Rumination is a salient feature of dysphoria and depression. According to metacognitive theory (Wells & Matthews, 1994; Wells, 2009) metacognitive beliefs are associated with rumination and depression and contribute to the effect of rumination in the development of psychological disorder. Papageorgiou and Wells (2003, 2004) tested a metacognitive model of the factors responsible for the initiation and maintenance of rumination and its relationship with depression and several studies supported for the role of metacognitions. The present study used a prospective design to examine possible causal factors in the model by testing relationships between negative metacognitive beliefs, rumination, and depression in a nonclinical sample. The results showed that negative metacognitive beliefs about rumination prospectively predicted depression even after statistically controlling for initial levels of depression and rumination. However, rumination did not prospectively predict depression when controlling for negative metacognitive beliefs about rumination. The results are consistent with the metacognitive model of depression and are consistent with the focus in metacognitive therapy.


Silje Steinsbekk

Steinsbekk, Silje; Jozefiak, Thomas; Ødegård, Rønnaug; Wichstrøm, Lars. Impaired parent-reported quality of life in treatment-seeking children with obesity is mediated by high levels of psychopathology. Quality of Life Research 2009;18(9):1159-1167

Lars Wichstrøm

DOI: 10.1007/s11136-009-9535-6

The purpose of the current study was to explore psychopathology as a mediator of quality of life (QOL) in children and adolescents with obesity. The notion that psychopathology and QOL are two distinct constructs was also tested.

A sample of treatment-seeking children and adolescents with obesity (n = 185, average age = 11.5, mean BMI SDS = 3.03) was matched to a community sample of children (n = 799, average age = 11.5). Both self- and parent-reported measures of QOL (KINDL-R) and psychopathology (CBCL/YSR) was completed.

Parent-reported QOL was impaired, and both self-reported and parent-reported psychopathology was elevated in children and adolescents with obesity. Psychopathology accounted for all the variance of the effect of obesity on parent-reported QOL. The distinction between QOL and psychopathology was supported through confirmatory factor analysis.

Impaired parent-reported QOL in children and adolescents with obesity was attributable to their elevated levels of psychopathology.


Skjelsbæk, Inger. Kjønnsbasert vold i krig: Hvordan få god kunnskap og på hvilken måte?. Sosiologi i dag 2009;39(2):72-90

This article focuses on gender based violence in armed conflict and what kind of knowledge we have and which knowledge we seek. By implication the article focuses on the appropriate and possible methodologies which can and should be used in order to further the studies of sexual violence in war. More poignantly, the article discusses the need for both overviews of gender based violence in war, as well as insights on its diverse effects on individual and societal levels. Only though a combination of quantitative and qualitative measures will it be possible to get the best possible starting point for both combating this form of violence and help those who suffer from it.


Friborg, Oddgeir; Hjemdal, Odin; Martinussen, Monica; Rosenvinge, Jan H. Empirical Support for Resilience as More than the Counterpart and Absence of Vulnerability and Symptoms of Mental Disorder. Journal of individual differences 2009;30(3):138-151

Odin Hjemdal

DOI: 10.1027/1614-0001.30.3.138

The construct of resilience has been viewed as the direct counterpart of factors jeopardizing mental health, i.e., vulnerability and psychopathology. Any operationalization of resilience, thus, risks lying on the same latent continuum as indicators of mental illness, although indicating their absence. A factor analysis combining items from these measurement domains, followed by analyses of second-order factor scores was performed to test this assumption. A random selection of 1,724 participants (34% response rate) from the general population of Norway responded. All items were discriminated well by their primary factors. A second-order factor analysis extracted two components, which was confirmed on a hold-out sample by confirmatory factor methods. The Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA), which measures protective factors, correlated with both second-order factors. Thus, the RSA shared common variance with vulnerability and psychopathology, as well as being unique from illness indices. A hierarchical regression analysis that tested interactions between vulnerability and resilience further supported the unique contributions of the RSA. Thus, the notion of resilience-protective indicators as solely counterparts of vulnerability and psychopathology is not empirically supported.


Richard J. Alapack

Alapack, Richard Joseph. The Epiphany of female flesh: A phenomenological hermeneutic of popular fashion. Journal of Popular Culture 2009;42(6):977-1003

DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-5931.2009.00718.x

Zones of sensual and sexual lure open and close in an intimate link with popular culture. Fashion, like visual media and music, is an ever-present pivot around which swings this two-way door. Consequently, although the preferences of fashion to reveal or conceal certain bodily regions are transitory, they are never trivial. Each passing fad, as it lingers and fades, pinpoints the crux of its historical moment and thus bears theoretical significance. Insofar as fashion interweaves wardrobe and skin, makeup and hairstyles, perfume, jewelry, and accessories, it mediates the shifting winds of social climate. From the viewpoint of semiotics, this pattern is an intricate system of cultural change and tribal belonging. This study adopts the theoretical rationale of phenomenology to unravel the strands that tie fashion to psychosocial – political – historical matters. Maurice Merleau-Ponty demonstrates that the human body is not only an object of observation, but also a meaning- creating subject and a medium of culture. Clothing does not just drape the flesh but extends it. Clothing reveals personal ambitions, social aspirations, and the prevailing zeitgeist. One stellar way to espy the waxing, waning, and displacement of political power is to pay attention to what women are wearing.


Spada, Marcantonio M.; Caselli, Gabriele; Wells, Adrian. Metacognitions as a predictor of drinking status and level of alcohol use following CBT in problem drinkers: A prospective study. Behaviour Research and Therapy 2009;47(10):882-886

DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2009.06.010

This study investigated the role of negative emotions and metacognitions in predicting problem drinkers' drinking status (absence or presence of drinking) and level of weekly alcohol use at 3, 6 and 12 months after a course of treatment. A total of 70 problem drinkers with a DSM-IV diagnosis of alcohol abuse participated in the study. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory and symptoms of anxiety were measured with the state anxiety sub-scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Metacognitions were measured with the Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire. Results indicated that beliefs about need to control thoughts predicted: (1) drinking status at 3 and 6 months; and (2) level of weekly alcohol use at 3, 6 and 12 months. The contribution of metacognition was independent of negative emotions and initial level of weekly alcohol use. The results support the role of metacognition in problem drinking. Given that metacognitions are a possible risk factor for drinking status and level of weekly alcohol use it is suggested that treatment for problem drinking could target this variable.


Tor Erik Nysæter

Nysæter, Tor Erik; Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen. Hvor ble det av de multiple personlighetene?. Skepsis 2009

Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair

Teorier om multippel personlighetsforstyrrelse har gått på en kraftig smell internasjonalt. Norge er et av få land der teorien får økt innflytelse. Blant annet presenteres det som en “offervennlig” teori. Men det slår begge veier. I norsk rett ble det i 2008 for eksempel argumentert for at en morder handlet i en “annen personlighetstilstand” og dermed kunne ha krav på nedsatt straff. Det er ikke første gang. I denne artikkelen skisseres hva idéene bak MPF er, og hva som er galt med dem.


Hans M. Nordahl

Nordahl, Hans Morten. Effectiveness of Brief Metacognitive Therapy versus Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in a General Outpatient Setting. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy 2009;2(2):152-159

DOI: 10.1521/ijct.2009.2.2.152

This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of brief metacognitive therapy when applied to a representative sample of treatment resistant patients in a clinic setting. Patients were typically heterogenous with a range of comorbid diagnoses and the majority had failed to respond to medication. They were randomly assigned to treatment as usual (n = 13; TAU), or metacognitive therapy (n = 15; MCT). TAU consisted of cognitive-behavior therapy. Improvements in depression, anxiety, and worry were observed in both treatments. Patients receiving MCT showed significantly greater levels of improvement in anxiety and worry than those receiving TAU. It is tentatively concluded that MCT can be safely and effectively delivered as a brief treatment in a heterogenous clinical practice setting.


Wichstrøm, Lars. Hvem går til psykolog?. Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening 2009;46(11):1036-1043

Lars Wichstrøm


Ruud van der Weel

Weel, Frederikus van der; van der Meer, Audrey. Seeing it coming: infants' brain responses to looming danger. Die Naturwissenschaften 2009;96(12):1385-1391

Audrey van der Meer

DOI: 10.1007/s00114-009-0585-y

A fundamental property of most animals is the ability to see whether an object is approaching on a direct collision course and, if so, when it will collide. Using high-density electroencephalography in 5- to 11-month-old infants and a looming stimulus approaching under three different accelerations, we investigated how the young human nervous system extracts and processes information for impending collision. Here, we show that infants' looming related brain activity is characterised by theta oscillations. Source analyses reveal clear localised activity in the visual cortex. Analysing the temporal dynamics of the source waveform, we provide evidence that the temporal structure of different looming stimuli is sustained during processing in the more mature infant brain, providing infants with increasingly veridical time-to-collision information about looming danger as they grow older and become more mobile.


Hagen, Ingunn; Wold, Thomas. Mediegenerasjonen - Barn og unge i det nye medielandskapet. Det Norske Samlaget 2009 (ISBN 978-82-521-7216-4) 206 s.

Ingunn Hagen

Dagens barn og unge er oppvaksne midt i ein medierevolusjon. Dei har tilgang til mange fleire medium enn tidlegare generasjonar, og media er integrert i kvardagen deira på ein annan måte enn før. Det er særleg PC og mobil som har gjort sitt inntog dei siste tiåra, med nettsamfunn, chatting, dataspel og SMS som populære kanalar for dei unge. Samstundes har TV halde på posisjonen sin som det sentrale barne- og ungdomsmediet.

I denne boka undersøkjer forfattarane korleis barn og ungdom lever i det nye medielandskapet. Korleis bruker barn og unge ulike media? Kva betyr media for dei, og korleis verkar dei inn på identiteten deira? Kva rolle spelar media i dagens kommersialiserte barne- og ungdomskultur? Dei nye media har reist nye problemstillingar om unge og medium – vi har fått bekymring om påverknad frå dataspel og om stillesitjande oppvekst framfor skjermen.

Forfattarane tek utganspunkt i mediebruken som praksis, der barna sjølve er aktive aktørar og fortolkarar. Alle media inneber både mulegheiter og risiko, og utfordringa er å gjere barna til kompetente, kritiske og reflekterte brukarar.


Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair

Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen; Schmitt, David; Fjeldavli, Ylva Lise; Harlem, Siri Katinka. Sex Differences in Sexual Desires and Attitudes in Norwegian Samples. Interpersona 2009:3.S1;1-32

Despite highly replicable predictable differences between the sexes on various sexual desires and attitudes, critics of evolutionary perspectives argue against the biological origins of such differences, highlighting cultural explanations. Critics suggest that there are no cross-cultural evolutionary predictable, systematic differences. Eagly and Wood (1999) suggest that in egalitarian cultures sex differences will be small or disappear. We tested whether Trivers’ (1972) Parental Investment Theory and Buss and Schmitt’s (1993) Sexual Strategies Theory predicted sex differences in sexuality within samples of students (N=1072) in egalitarian Norway. We expected similar interest in long-term relationships, but that females seek short-term partners less than males. Furthermore, males were expected to have less restricted sociosexuality, fantasize more, take more initiative to sex and be less satisfied with frequency of sex. The predictions were supported in the evolutionarily-predicted directions. Clinical consequences of claiming there are no sex differences in sexuality, when indeed they exist, are discussed.


Eg, Ragnhild; Behne, Dawn Marie. Distorted visual information influences audiovisual perception of voicing. Proceedings of the International Conference on Spoken Language Processing 2009

Dawn M. Behne

Research has shown that visual information becomes less reliable when images are severely distorted. Furthermore, while voicing is generally identified from acoustical cues, it may also provide perception with visual cues. The current study investigated the impact of video distortion on the audiovisual perception of voicing. Audiovisual stimuli were presented to 30 participants with the original video quality, or with reduced video resolution (75x60 pixels, 45x36 pixels). Results revealed that in addition to increased auditory reliance with video distortion, particularly for voiceless stimuli, perception of voiceless stimuli was more influenced by the visual modality than voiced stimuli.


Lars Wichstrøm

Wichstrøm, Lars. Predictors of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Versus Attempted Suicide: Similar or Different?. Archives of Suicide Research 2009;13(2):105-122

DOI: 10.1080/13811110902834992

A nationally representative sample of Norwegian high school students (ages 14 to 19, N = 2,924) completed self-reports in school about non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), suicide attempt (SA), and risk and protective factors. They were re-examined 5 years later. In all 2.2% reported NSSI with no SA during the follow-up period and 3.2% reported SA. Several risk and protective factors were common to NSSI and SA: previous SA, young age, debut of sexual intercourse before the age of 15, and non-heterosexual sexual interest. However, other risk and protective factors were unique to NSSI or SA: Previous NSSI increased the risk for future NSSI whereas satisfaction with social support protected against later NSSI. Suicidal ideation increased the risk for SA whereas attachment to parents protected against it. NSSI did not increase the risk of future SA. NSSI and SA may be thus conceived of as only partly overlapping phenomena, and not necessarily just representing different degrees of suicidality.


Pfuhl, Gerit; Tjelmeland, Håkon; Molden, Sturla; Biegler, Robert. Optimal cache search depends on precision of spatial memory and pilfering, but what if that knowledge is not perfect?. Animal Behaviour 2009;78(4):819-828

Robert Biegler

DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2009.06.014

The problem of when an action should be abandoned because it is not worth further effort occurs in many situations. In the spatial domain, the relevant information can be quantified. Two essential pieces of information are the precision with which the target location and the probability of the target being present are known. We offer a quantitative description of optimal solutions to cache retrieval, treating it as a 2D investment problem with search cost proportional to area. We estimated the value of knowing the precision of spatial information and the precision of information regarding probability: how precisely should you estimate the precision of your knowledge? We compared the expected gain from assessing the precision of spatial knowledge and probability with the expected gain from decisions based on aggregate knowledge of the distribution of precision and probability. We found that heuristics, represented here as default search limits based on aggregate knowledge, are useful only under limited conditions.


Christian Klöckner

Klöckner, Christian; Ohms, Sylvia. The importance of personal norms for purchasing organic milk. British Food Journal 2009;111(11):1173-1187

DOI: 10.1108/00070700911001013

The purpose of this paper is to apply a structured approach to understand the importance of personal ecological norms in purchasing organic food. The norm-activation-model by Schwartz is used to predict self-reported and observed purchase behaviour of organic milk.


Tore Aune

Aune, Tore; Stiles, Tore C. Universal-Based Prevention of Syndromal and Subsyndromal Social Anxiety: A Randomized Controlled Study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2009;77(5):867-879

Tore C. Stiles

DOI: 10.1037/a0015813

This article reports results from a universal preventive program aimed at (a) reducing social anxiety and (b) preventing the development of syndromal social anxiety among a population-based sample of older children and young adolescents during a 1-year period. Pupils (N = 1,748) from 2 counties were cluster randomized to either an intervention or a control condition. In the intervention condition, the Norwegian Universal Preventive Program for Social Anxiety (NUPP-SA)—which educates pupils, parents/guardians, teachers/school staff, and county health workers—was administered. The results indicate that NUPP-SA had a significant specific intervention effect for reducing social anxiety in the total sample as well as among the syndromal subjects. Further, significantly fewer subjects from the intervention county developed syndromal social anxiety during the 1-year period, thus showing a prevention effect. The results demonstrate the value of an intervention specifically aimed at reducing social anxiety and preventing the development of syndromal social anxiety among young people.


Dawn M. Behne

Wang, Yue; Behne, Dawn Marie; Jiang, Haisheng. Influence of native language phonetic system on audio-visual speech perception. Journal of Phonetics 2009;37(3):344-356

DOI: 10.1016/j.wocn.2009.04.002

This study examines how native language (L1) experience affects auditory–visual (AV) perception of nonnative (L2) speech. Korean, Mandarin and English perceivers were presented with English CV syllables containing fricatives with three places of articulation: labiodentals nonexistent in Korean, interdentals nonexistent in Korean and Mandarin, and alveolars occurring in all three L1s. The stimuli were presented as auditory-only, visual-only, congruent AV and incongruent AV. Results show that for the labiodentals which are nonnative in Korean, the Koreans had lower accuracy for the visual domain than the English and the Mandarin perceivers, but they nevertheless achieved native-level perception in the auditory and AV domains. For the interdentals nonexistent in Korean and Mandarin, while both nonnative groups had lower accuracy in the auditory domain than the native English group, they benefited from the visual information with improved performance in AV perception. Comparing the two nonnative groups, the Mandarin perceivers showed poorer auditory and AV identification for the interdentals and greater AV-fusion with the incongruent AV material than did the Koreans. These results indicate that nonnative perceivers are able to use visual speech information in L2 perception, although acquiring accurate use of the auditory and visual domains may not be similarly achieved across native groups, a process influenced by L1 experience.


Gabriel, Ute. Emotions and legal judgements: normative issues and empirical findings. I: Social psychology of punishment of crime. John Wiley & Sons 2009 ISBN 978-0-470-51599-0. s. 157-172

Ute Gabriel


Dawn M. Behne

Alm, Magnus; Behne, Dawn Marie; Wang, Yue; Eg, Ragnhild. Audio-visual identification of place of articulation and voicing in white and babble noise. Journal of Acoustical Society of America 2009;126(1):377-387

DOI: 10.1121/1.3129508

Research shows that noise and phonetic attributes influence the degree to which auditory and visual modalities are used in audio-visual speech perception (AVSP). Research has, however, mainly focused on white noise and single phonetic attributes, thus neglecting the more common babble noise and possible interactions between phonetic attributes. This study explores whether white and babble noise differentially influence AVSP and whether these differences depend on phonetic attributes. White and babble noise of 0 and -12 dB signal-to-noise ratio were added to congruent and incongruent audio-visual stop consonant-vowel stimuli. The audio (A) and video (V) of incongruent stimuli differed either in place of articulation (POA) or voicing. Responses from 15 young adults show that, compared to white noise, babble resulted in more audio responses for POA stimuli, and fewer for voicing stimuli. Voiced syllables received more audio responses than voiceless syllables. Results can be attributed to discrepancies in the acoustic spectra of both the noise and speech target. Voiced consonants may be more auditorily salient than voiceless consonants which are more spectrally similar to white noise. Visual cues contribute to identification of voicing, but only if the POA is visually salient and auditorily susceptible to the noise type.


Vedeler, Dankert; Garvey, Andrea P.. Dynamic Methodology in Infancy Research. I: Dynamic Process Methodology in the Social and Developmental Sciences. Springer 2009 ISBN 978-0-387-95921-4. s. 431-453

Dankert Vedeler

DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-95922-1_19

Infancy research has been a quickly expanding field in recent decades. Since the early 1970s, an increasing body of research demonstrated that the capacities of the newborn baby were far more advanced than previously assumed. New methodologies, such as eye tracking, motor movement tracking, heart rate measurements, EEG measurements, and the like, have been used in experimental settings. Furthermore, video observations have been used to follow, for example, mother-infant interaction, both in natural settings (Trevarthen & Hubley, 1978) and experimental settings, such as in the Strange Situation developed by Ainsworth to measure infant’s attachment (Ainsworth, 1982).


Sturle D. Tvedt

Tvedt, Sturle Danielsen; Saksvik, Per Øystein; Nytrø, Kjell. Does change process healthiness reduce the negative effects of organizational change on the psychosocial work environment?. Work & Stress 2009;23(1):80-98

Per Øystein Saksvik

DOI: 10.1080/02678370902857113

Kjell Nytrø

This study aimed to investigate whether the detrimental effects of organizational change on the psychosocial work environment are reduced by the “healthiness” of change processes. This includes the management's awareness that the change may be experienced differently by various individuals and groups (diversity); availability of the manager during the process; the degree to which conflicts are resolved constructively; and the degree to which the new roles to be taken on are clarified. Two studies are presented. Using a randomized sample of the Norwegian working population (N = 2389), the first study showed that there were both direct and indirect positive relationships between organizational change and stress, with job demands (but not control and support) as a mediator. In the second study a healthy change process index (HCPI) was developed from dimensions of healthy change that had emerged in an earlier qualitative study. Using data from seven Norwegian enterprises undergoing change (N = 561), this study showed that the healthiness of the change process was related negatively to stress and positively to Control and Support, but not to Demands. Overall, these findings support the idea that a healthy process may not reduce the additional demands produced by organizational change. However, a healthy process may still be able to reduce the experience of stress and facilitate coping with stress and associated increased demands through enhancing the psychosocial work environment.


Gygax, Pascal; Gabriel, Ute; Sarrasin, Oriane; Oakhill, Jane; Garnham, Alan. Some grammatical rules are more difficult than others: The case of the generic interpretation of the masculine. European Journal of Psychology of Education 2009;24(2):235-246

Ute Gabriel

In this paper we argue that the generic use of the masculine represents a grammatical rule that might be easy to learn but difficult to apply when understanding texts. This argument is substantiated by reviewing the relevant literature as well as the recent work conducted by the GREL Group (Gender Representation in Language) on the interaction between stereotypical and grammatical information in the construction of a representation of gender when reading role names. The studies presented in this paper show that the masculine form used as a generic to refer to persons of both sexes, or to persons of indefinite sex or whose sex is irrelevant, in gender marked languages is likely to be associated with its specific meaning (i.e., masculine refers only to men). This is true even though the generic nature of the masculine is a very common grammatical rule learnt at school. People may have learned this rule and may understand it, but may not readily apply it.


Truls Ryum

Ryum, Truls; Stiles, Tore C; Vogel, Patrick A. Kvaliteten på tidlig terapeutisk allianse som prediktor for behandlingseffekt ved depresjon og angst. Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening 2009;46(7):651-657

Tore C. Stiles

Patrick A. Vogel

En god terapeutisk allianse er nødvendig og viktig i psykologisk behandling. Dens kausale eller kurative effekt kan imidlertid variere som en funksjon av pasientens diagnose


Gerd Inger Ringdal

Andre, Beate; Ringdal, Gerd Inger; Loge, Jon Håvard; Rannestad, Toril; Kaasa, Stein. Implementation of computerized technology in a palliative care unit. Palliative & Supportive Care 2009;7(1):57-63

DOI: 10.1017/S147895150900008X

Objective: Symptom assessment is important in palliative care. Computerized technology (CT) is now available for use in such assessments. Barriers against implementation of CT in health care in general are well known, but less is known about how such technology is perceived by palliative health care personnel. The aim of the present study was to investigate the experience with implementation of CT among personnel in symptom assessment at a palliative care unit.
Method: Seventeen respondents from a hospital ward unit and an outpatient clinic unit participated in an in-depth interview. A qualitative approach was used in collecting and analyzing the data.
Results: Respondents at the hospital ward unit were better motivated than respondents at an outpatient clinic unit. It was stated that the health condition of the patient is important in their perception of the tool as useful or not. Conflicts between “high tech” and “high touch” were reported in both units.
Significance of results: When the implementation process is conducted in such a manner that the health care personnel are involved, benefits of the tool can be realized. Thus, effective implementation and use of high tech can lead to more time released for high touch.


Randall, Raymond; Nielsen, Karina; Tvedt, Sturle Danielsen. The development of five scales to measure employees' appraisals of organizational-level stress management interventions. Work & Stress 2009;23(1):1-23

Sturle D. Tvedt

DOI: 10.1080/02678370902815277

Organizations and researchers often encounter difficulties when evaluating organizational-level stress management interventions. When interventions fail, often it is unclear whether the intervention itself was ineffective, or whether problems with implementation processes were to blame. In this paper we describe the development of questionnaire items that allow employees to report on their appraisals of aspects of intervention process issues that are frequently thought to be related to intervention outcomes. The study was carried out as part of the evaluation of a teamworking intervention implemented in the elderly care sector in Denmark. Using a combination of information gathered from published intervention research and qualitative data collected from participants involved in an intervention, questionnaire items were developed and their sensitivity, reliability, and validity were tested. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed five independent factors: line manager attitudes and actions, exposure to components of the intended intervention, employee involvement, employee readiness, and intervention history. They all showed significant correlations with post-intervention outcomes (job satisfaction, well-being, and self-efficacy). Line manager attitudes and actions showed particularly strong and unique relationships with outcome measures. We refer to this new group of scales for evaluating employees' appraisals of an intervention as the Intervention Process Measure (IPM). Our findings indicate that such a measure has the potential to improve the evaluation of interventions.


Tore Aune

Aune, Tore; Stiles, Tore C. The Effects of Depression and Stressful Life Events on the Development and Maintenance of Syndromal Social Anxiety: Sex and Age Differences. Journal of clinical child and adolescent psychology 2009;38(4):501-512

Tore C. Stiles

DOI: 10.1080/15374410902976304

This study assessed age and sex differences in the prevalence and incidence rates of syndromal social anxiety (SSA), as well as the predictive role of depressive symptoms and stressful life events on the development and persistence of SSA. A sample of 1,439 young people, between 11 and 14 years of age, was assessed twice within a 12-month interval. No age differences were found. Girls had a significantly higher prevalence of SSA than boys, but there was no sex difference for incidence rate. Depressive symptoms did not play a significant role in either the development or the persistence of SSA, whereas SSA predicted the development of depression. Stressful life events played a significant role in SSA's development but not in its persistence.


Arnulf Kolstad

Kolstad, Arnulf; Horpestad, Silje. Self-Construal in Chile and Norway: Implications for Cultural Differences in Individualism and Collectivism. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 2009;40(2):275-281

DOI: 10.1177/0022022108328917

The study compares Chilean and Norwegian self-construal with regard to the concepts of independence and interdependence. Chile has been characterized as collectivistic and Norway as individualistic, and the hypothesis is that this characterization also distinguishes self-perception as independent and interdependent, respectively. The total sample consists of 368 university students. The instrument, Self-Construal Scale (SCS), measures the strength of independence and interdependence. The Chilean sample reports a higher score on both constructs. Both samples report the highest score on independence. The results are inconsistent with previous models that characterize Chile as collectivistic and Norway as individualistic. These characterizations are questioned. The findings also imply that a particular score on either independence or interdependence does not predict the score on the opposite variable. Individuals in the two cultures have a unique blend of independent and interdependent self-appraisal, which represent a composite mix of individualistic and collective elements in each culture.


Sjøberg, Lennart. Precautionary attitudes and the acceptance of a local nuclear waste repository. Safety Science 2009;47(4):542-546

Lennart Sjøberg

DOI: 10.1016/j.ssci.2008.07.035

There has been little previous research on public attitudes about precaution and their significance for risk opinions and attitudes. The present case of application is that of the siting of a repository for spent nuclear fuel, a controversial issue in most countries. Data from a representative sample of the Swedish population were collected with a mailed questionnaire, which covered risk perceptions and attitudes towards nuclear waste. A reliable unidimensional scale measuring precautionary attitudes was constructed. It was found that women were more likely to accept items expressing a precautionary attitude than were men. Precaution was related, as expected, to epistemic distrust and size of negative consequences if an accident should occur in the handling and storing of spent nuclear fuel. Epistemic trust and size of consequences contributed about equally strongly to the variance of precautionary attitude. Adding the scale to a set of explanatory variables in models of attitudes and voting intentions with regard to a repository resulted in a significantly improved power of the models. Emotional reactions emerged as important explanatory variables in accounting for precautionary attitudes, political ideology to a smaller extent. The results based on intra-sample variability were mirrored at the level of between-sample variation. Results from the two samples from municipalities where a siting was under evaluation (Oskarshamn and Östhammar) showed that respondents there were much more positive to a repository and at the same time less likely to accept pro-PP statements.


Christian Klöckner

Klöckner, Christian; Matthies, Ellen. Structural Modeling of Car Use on the Way to the University in Different Settings: Interplay of Norms, Habits, Situational Restraints, and Perceived Behavioral Control. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 2009;39(8):1807-1834

DOI: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2009.00505.x

This manuscript presents the results of the application of an extended norm activation model to the explanation of car use on the way to the university with a sample of 430 students of 3 German universities. The proposed two-stage structural model is supported by the data. First, a norm activation process starting with awareness of consequences activates subjective and personal norms. Second, behavior is determined by car-use habits, perceived behavioral control (PBC), car access, and effort to use public transportation. The influence of personal norms on behavior is mediated by habits. Subgroup analyses of the second stage of the model show a high structural stability, but differences in the regression weights.


Bang Petersen, Michael; Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen. Evolutionary Political Science - Integrating Evolutionary Psychology And The Social Sciences. I: Human Characteristics - Evolutionary perspectives of human mind and kind. Cambridge Scholars Publishing 2009 ISBN 978-1-4438-0213-0. s. 313-350

Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair

Every once in a while, we have to reconsider the perennial questions concerning human nature: What are the special human behaviours, social practices, and psychological structures that make us particularly human?
The field of evolution, psychology and cognitive science is the most expanding, inter-disciplinary area of this field for the time being, uniting different sciences under the same evolutionary paradigm and keeping them occupied by the same eternal questions stated above.


G. Elisabeth Lofstad

Reinfjell, Trude; Lofstad, Grete Elisabeth; Nordahl, Hans Morten; Vikan, Arne; Diseth, Trond H.. Children in remission from Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Mental health and family functioning. European Journal of Cancer Care 2009;18(4)364-370

Hans M. Nordahl

DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2354.2008.00954.x

Arne Vikan

The objective of this study is to assess the mental health and psychosocial adjustment of children in remission from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), and parental functioning compared to healthy controls. A cross-sectional study of 40 children treated for ALL (mean age 11.8 years, range 8.5-15.4) and healthy controls (n = 42) (mean age 11.8 years, range 8.11-15.0) were assessed by the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), the Youth Self-Report (YSR) and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The parent's own mental health was assessed by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30). Children treated for ALL showed on average significantly more symptoms as measured by the CBCL Total Behaviour Score for mother's report (P = 0.005), and for father's report (P = 0.004) compared with healthy children. Fathers reported more anxiety (P = 0.03) and depression (P = 0.02) as measured by the GHQ-30 compared with healthy controls. Children in remission from ALL showed on average significantly more problems regarding mental health and psychosocial adjustment, as reported by their parents, compared with healthy controls. Adequate rehabilitation and follow-up programmes should be implemented for children in remission from ALL. The results indicate the need to pay attention to the mental health of fathers during the rehabilitation phase.


Lund, Ingunn Olea; Rundmo, Torbjørn. Cross-cultural comparisons of traffic safety, risk perception, attitudes and behaviour. Safety Science 2009;47(4):547-553

Torbjørn Rundmo

DOI: 10.1016/j.ssci.2008.07.008

The core aim of the present study is to examine cultural differences in risk perception and attitudes towards traffic safety and risk, taking behaviour in the Norwegian and the Ghanaian public. An additional aim is to discuss the applicability of various traffic measures, suited for low and middle income countries in Africa. Sample: The results of the present study are based on two self-completion questionnaire surveys carried out in February and March 2006. The first was a representative sample of the Norwegian public above 18 years of age (N = 247). The second was a stratified sample of Ghanaian respondents (N = 299). In Ghana the data was collected in Accra and Cape Coast. The results showed that there is potential for further improvement of safety attitudes and risk behaviour among Ghanaians as well as Norwegians. There were also differences in the respondents’ evaluation of attitudes, risk perception and behaviour. Perceived risk and attitudes also significantly predicted risk behaviour and accidents/collisions. The implications of these results for traffic safety will be discussed.


Gerd Inger Ringdal

Helbostad, Jorunn L.; Hølen, Jacob Christian; Jordhøy, Marit S; Ringdal, Gerd Inger; Oldervoll, Line Merethe; Kaasa, Stein. A first step in the development of an international self-report instrument for physical functioning in palliative cancer care: A systematic literature review and an expert opinion evaluation study. Journal of Pain Symptom and Management 2009;37(2):196-205

DOI: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2008.01.011

Decline in physical functioning (PF) in progressive cancer increases risk of psychological problems, dependence, and distress, and it considerably affects quality of life. Despite this, assessment of PF has received little attention. Standardized, internationally endorsed assessment tools are needed that assess activities of relevance to palliative cancer patients from very low to high levels of PF. This study was done in cooperation with the European Association for Palliative Care Research Network. It was initiated to develop a computer-based symptom-assessment tool and aimed to 1) identify relevant existing PF-assessment instruments, 2) extract relevant items and classify them into meaningful subdimensions, and 3) construct unidimensional scales of selected PF domains. A systematic literature review was performed to detect relevant PF items from existing instruments. The International Classification of Functioning and Health was used to decide relevant subdimensions of PF and expert panels within palliative cancer care consulted to make decisions on activities to be included. One hundred and thirty-five instruments containing 743 items were included from the literature review. Two relevant PF subdimensions were revealed: Mobility (386 items representing 65 different activities) and Self-Care (143 items representing 30 different activities). The final PF tool consisted of two unidimensional scales: 24 hierarchically ranked Mobility items ranging from turning in bed to running, and 16 non-hierarchically ranked Self-Care items. Further testing of the instrument in a palliative cancer population is needed to develop the final PF instrument.


Kropotov, Yury. Quantitative EEG, Event-Related Potentials And Neurotherapy. Academic Press 2009 (ISBN 978-0-12-374512-5) 600 s

Yury Kropotov

While the brain is ruled to a large extent by chemical neurotransmitters, it is also a bioelectric organ. The collective study of Quantitative ElectroEncephaloGraphs (QEEG-the conversion of brainwaves to digital form to allow for comparison between neurologically normative and dysfunctional individuals), Event Related Potentials (ERPs - electrophysiological response to stimulus) and Neurotherapy (the process of actually retraining brain processes to) offers a window into brain physiology and function via computer and statistical analyses of traditional EEG patterns, suggesting innovative approaches to the improvement of attention, anxiety, mood and behavior. The volume provides detailed description of the various EEG rhythms and ERPs, the conventional analytic methods such as spectral analysis, and the emerging method utilizing QEEG and ERPs. This research is then related back to practice and all existing approaches in the field of Neurotherapy - conventional EEG-based neurofeedback, brain-computer interface, transcranial Direct Current Stimulation, and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation - are covered in full. Additionally, software for EEG analysis is provided on a companion web site so that the theory can be practically utilized on the spot, and a database of the EEG algorithms described in the book can be combined with algorithms uploaded by the user in order to compare dysfunctional and normative data. While it does not offer the breadth provided by an edited work, this volume does provide a level of depth and detail that a single author can deliver, as well as giving readers insight into the personl theories of one of the preeminent leaders in the field.


Christian Klöckner

Haustein, Sonja; Klöckner, Christian; Blöbaum, Anke. Car use of young adults: The role of travel socialization. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 2009;12(2):168-178

DOI: 10.1016/j.trf.2008.10.003

This study evaluates how different aspects of travel socialization during childhood and adolescence contribute to the explanation of travel mode choice in young adulthood. In an online survey with 2612 students who had access to a car three different socialization aspects were measured retrospectively: communication with parents about the environmental impact of travel mode choice at the participants’ age of 15, the symbolic-affective importance of driving and acquisition of a driver’s license at the age of 18, and finally multi-mobility in the peer group at the age of 18. It was expected that socialization constructs would have a direct effect on social and personal norm as wells as on car use habit and an indirect effect on car use, mediated by norms, habit and intention. Structural equation modelling showed a significant impact of all socialization constructs on either norms or car use habit or both. Moreover, the postulated mediator effect could be confirmed. The paper encourages widening the perspective of transport studies by aspects of socialization, which have been neglected in former research on adults mobility behaviour.


Jozefiak, Thomas; Larsson, Bo Sture; Wichstrøm, Lars. Changes in quality of life among Norwegian school children: a six-month follow-up study. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 2009;7/7

Lars Wichstrøm

DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-7-7

Background A considerable gap exists in regard to longitudinal research on quality of life (QoL) in community populations of children and adolescents. Changes and stability of QoL have been poorly examined, despite the fact that children and adolescents undergo profound developmental changes. The aims of the study were to investigate short-term changes in student QoL with regard to sex and age in a school-based sample.
Methods A representative Norwegian sample of 1,821 school children, aged 8-16 years and their parents were tested at baseline and 6 months later, using the Inventory of Life Quality for Children and Adolescents (ILC) and the Kinder Lebensqualitat Fragebogen (KINDL). Student response rate at baseline was 71.2% and attrition over the follow-up period was 4.6%, and 1,336 parents (70%) completed the follow-up. Change scores between baseline and follow-up evaluations were analysed by means of ANCOVA in regard to sex and age effects.
Results Students in the 8(th) grade reported a decrease in QoL over the six-month follow-up period as compared to those in the 6(th) grade with regard to Family and School domains and total QoL on the KINDL. For emotional well-being a significant linear decrease in QoL across grades 6(th) to 10(th) was observed. However, student ratings on the Friends and Self-esteem domains did not change significantly by age. Girls reported a higher decrease in their QoL across all grades over the follow-up period than did boys in respect of Self-esteem on the KINDL, and an age-related decrease in total QoL between 6(th) and 8(th) grade on the ILC. Parent reports of changes in child QoL were nonsignificant on most of the domains
Conclusion The observed age and sex-related changes in school children's QoL across the six-month follow-up period should be considered in epidemiological as well as clinical research.


Pål-Ørjan Johansen

Johansen, Pål-Ørjan; Krebs, Teri Suzanne. How could MDMA (ecstasy) help anxiety disorders? A neurobiological rationale. Journal of Psychopharmacology 2009;23(4):389-391

DOI: 10.1177/0269881109102787

Exposure therapy is known to be an effective treatment for anxiety disorders. Nevertheless, exposure is not used as much as it should be, and instead patients are often given supportive medications such as serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and benzodiazepines, which may even interfere with the extinction learning that is the aim of treatment. Given that randomized controlled trials are now investigating a few doses of +/- 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') in combination with psychotherapy for treatment-resistant anxiety disorders, we would like to suggest the following three mechanisms for this potentially important new approach: 1) MDMA increases oxytocin levels, which may strengthen the therapeutic alliance; 2) MDMA increases ventromedial prefrontal activity and decreases amygdala activity, which may improve emotional regulation and decrease avoidance and 3) MDMA increases norepinephrine release and circulating cortisol levels, which may facilitate emotional engagement and enhance extinction of learned fear associations. Thus, MDMA has a combination of pharmacological effects that, in a therapeutic setting, could provide a balance of activating emotions while feeling safe and in control, as described in case reports of MDMA-augmented psychotherapy. Further clinical and preclinical studies of the therapeutic value of MDMA are indicated.


Jørgensen, K. N.; Rømma, V.; Rundmo, Torbjørn. Associations between ward atmosphere, patient satisfaction and outcome. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 2009;16(2):113-120

Torbjørn Rundmo

DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2850.2008.01333.x

Previous studies have found important associations between the ward atmosphere and patient satisfaction. However, fewer studies have examined the relationship between ward atmosphere and outcome of treatment. The aim of the study was to examine whether or not differences in ward atmosphere were associated with differences in satisfaction and outcome. Eighty patients at three different ward units responded to a questionnaire at admission and by the time of discharge from the hospital. The questionnaire comprised the ward atmosphere scale, a five-item index of patient satisfaction, the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale, an index of life satisfaction and the symptom checklist SCL-90R. The results showed that differences in the treatment environment between the ward units were associated with differences in patient satisfaction. There was mixed evidence for associations between ward atmosphere and outcome, while no associations were found between ward atmosphere and self-efficacy and life satisfaction. The results may suggest that the relationship between ward atmosphere and outcomes of treatment may be of a more indirect character than the relationship between ward atmosphere and satisfaction.


Arne Vikan

Vikan, Arne; Dias, Maria da Graça B. B.; Roazzi, Antonio. Rating Emotion Communication: Display and Concealment as Effects of Culture, Gender, Emotion Type, and Relationship. Interamerican journal of psychology 2009;43(1):77-83

Students from a collectivistic (Brazilian, n= 401) and an individualistic (Norwegian, n= 418) culture rated their ability to display and conceal anger, sadness, and anxiety in relation to immediate family, partner, friends, and “other persons.” Norwegians showed higher display ratings for anger and sadness, and higher concealment ratings for anger and anxiety. Display ratings were much higher, and concealment ratings much lower in relation to close persons than in relation to “other persons.” A culture x relationship interaction was that Brazilians’ ratings suggested more emotional openness to friends than to family and partner, whereas Norwegians showed the inverse patterns. Gender differences supported previous research by showing higher display and lower concealment ratings, and less differentiation between relationships by females.


Stian Solem

Solem, Stian; Hansen, Bjarne; Vogel, Patrick A.; Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen. The Efficacy of Teaching Psychology Students Exposure and Response Prevention for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 2009;50(3):245-250

Patrick A. Vogel

DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9450.2008.00703.x

Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair

The aim of the study was to investigate whether inexperienced student therapists could successfully learn exposure and response prevention for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Twenty out of 21 outpatients completed treatment as delivered by ten psychology students. A total of 60 hours group supervision and approximately 30 hours with individual supervision was given to the students over the course of three semesters. Large effect sizes were observed for measures of symptoms and depression. Sixty-two percent (N= 13) of the intent to treat group achieved clinical significant change and 81% no longer met the diagnosis criteria (N= 17). The treatment effects observed at the 6 month follow-up period were promising. The results are encouraging for training students in evidence based treatment for specific disorders.


Arne Vikan

Vikan, Arne; Dias, Maria; Nordvik, Hilmar. Perceived efficiency and use of strategies for emotion regulation. Psychological Reports 2009 ;104:455-467

Hilmar Nordvik

A total of 819 students, 208 women and 210 men from Norway and 201 women and 200 men from Brazil, of whom 76.9% were in the 20- to 29-yr.age range, rated the use and efficiency of 14 strategies in regulation of emotion aimed at stopping anger, anxiety, and sadness. The same strategies were rated as most frequently used in both cultures for all three negative emotions. The most used strategies were "talking to somebody" and "saying something to oneself". Used strategies were rated as more efficient than nonused strategies; cultural variation in use of strategy was consistent with the distinction between individualism and collectivism and women's ratings supported prior research on confidence in emotions by showing use of more strategies for anxiety and sadness than men's. Ratings from an outpatient sample of 80 women (M age=25.5 yr., SD=4.4) and 80 men (M age=25.4 yr., SD=4.1) supported expectations that there would be differences between nonpatients and patients based on diagnostic characteristics of depression and anxiety.


Bente G. Berg

Berg, Bente Gunnveig; Schachtner, J; Homberg, U. gamma-Aminobutyric acid immunostaining in the antennal lobe of the moth Heliothis virescens and its colocalization with neuropeptides. Cell and Tissue Research 2009; 335(3):593-605

DOI: 10.1007/s00441-008-0744-z

It is well known that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain of most living organisms. Its presence in neural tissue was reported for the first time in 1950 (Robert and Frankel, J Biological Chemistry). The discovery of the GABA system generated a comprehensive research activity and attracted scientists from a variety of disciplines including biochemistry and neuropsychology. The primary olfactory centre of the moth brain, the antennal lobe, is well suited for studying the neurochemical organization of a functional neural network. This system includes only four types of neurons and the synaptic connectivity pattern made up by these elements has been thoroughly investigated. The article listed above deals with the arrangement of neuroactive substances in this circuitry. Thus, by use of immunocytochemistry and double label immuno-fluorescence, we have investigated the distribution of GABA and its colocalization with a number of neuropeptides. The relevance of co-transmitters in an inhibitory neural network is considered.


Wichstrøm, Tove; Wichstrøm, Lars. Does sports participation during adolescence prevent later alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use?. Addiction 2009;104(1):138-149

Lars Wichstrøm

DOI: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02422.x

Aims To study whether participation in organized sports during adolescence predicts increased smoking of tobacco, alcohol intoxication and cannabis use from late adolescence to adulthood when controlling for potential confounders. Moreover, to study whether such increased drug use varies according to type of sport (team versus individual), main skills needed (endurance, strength or technical) and level of competition.
Design, setting and participants Survey of national sample of Norwegian high school students (aged 13–19 years) in 1992 (T1) followed-up in 1994 (T2), 1999 (T3) and 2006 (T4) (n = 3251).
Measurements Outcome measures included smoking of tobacco and 12-month prevalences of alcohol intoxication and cannabis use, respectively. Confounders included pubertal timing, friends' drug use, perceived social acceptance, grades and parental socio-economic status.
Findings Latent growth curve analyses showed that initial level of participation in organized sports predicted growth in alcohol intoxication. Those involved initially in team sports had greater growth in alcohol intoxication, but lower growth in tobacco use and cannabis use, during the adolescent and early adult years compared to those involved in technical or strength sports. Practising endurance sports, as opposed to technical or strength sports, predicted reduced growth in alcohol intoxication and tobacco use.
Conclusions Sports participation in adolescence, and participation in team sports in particular, may increase the growth in alcohol intoxication during late adolescent and early adult years, whereas participation in team sports and endurance sports may reduce later increase in tobacco and cannabis use.


Nanna Kayed

Kayed, Nanna Sønnichsen; van der Meer, Audrey. A longitudinal study of prospective control in catching by full-term and preterm infants. Experimental Brain Research 2009;194(2):245-258

Audrey van der Meer

DOI: 10.1007/s00221-008-1692-2

Prospective control when catching moving toys was studied longitudinally in full-term and preterm infants between the ages of 22 and 48 weeks. The toy's distance and time to the catching place and its velocity were explored as possible timing strategies used by infants to start their hand movement. The aim of the study was to find evidence for a shift in timing strategy and whether there were differences between full-term and preterm infants. In addition, it was investigated how infants continuously guided their hands to the toy and whether this guidance was influenced by their use of timing strategy. The toy approached the infants from the side with different constant velocities and constant accelerations. Results showed that there was little difference between full-term and preterm infants' use of timing strategies. Initially, infants used a distance- or velocity-strategy, possibly causing them to have many unsuccessful catches. After a shift to a time-strategy, infants increased the number of successful catches and performed longer and more functional tau-couplings between the hand and the toy. One preterm infant did not switch to a time-strategy, and frequently missed the moving toy. The same infant also showed less functional tau-coupling with non-controlled collisions between the hand and the toy. More follow-up research is needed to investigate whether problems with extracting the relevant perceptual information for action could be an early indication of later perceptuo-motor difficulties.


Nordfjærn, Trond; Rundmo, Torbjørn. Perceptions of traffic risk in an industrialised and a developing country. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 2009;12(1):91-98

Torbjørn Rundmo

DOI: 10.1016/j.trf.2008.08.003

This study aimed to investigate differences in traffic risk perception among a Norwegian and Ghanaian public. This was carried out while controlling for relevant background variables such as gender, age, and levels of educational achievement. In order to obtain the core aim of the study, a self-completion questionnaire was devised and distributed to a representative sample of the Norwegian population (n = 247) and to a stratified sample in Accra and Cape-Coast in Ghana (n = 299). The results showed that the Ghanaian sample perceived higher traffic risk than the Norwegian sample. Gender, age, and levels of educational achievement exerted minimal influences on risk perception. The results were discussed in context of industrialisation, cultural differences, and health beliefs.


Rise, Marit By; Steinsbekk, Aslak. How do parents of child patients compare consultations with homeopaths and physicians? A qualitative study. Patient Education and Counseling 2009;74(1):91-96

DOI: 10.1016/j.pec.2008.07.039

Objective How do parents of child patients experience and compare consultations with homeopaths and physicians, and how do they describe an ideal consultation. Methods A qualitative study with interviews of parents to 16 children who had consulted both a homeopaths and a physicians. Results Comparing consultations with physicians and homeopaths, the parents experienced the homeopathic consultations to a greater extent to have a whole person approach, also described as a core factor in an ideal consultation. This approach included exhaustive questioning, longer consultations, more interaction with the child and looking for the underlying cause. Conclusion The parents in this study perceived that the homeopathic consultation had a whole person approach while consultations with most physicians focused on the symptoms. The homeopathic consultation was said to be more in line with what the parents perceived to be an ideal consultation for their children than consultation with physicians. Practice implications Treatment philosophy and the aim of the consultation are likely to play a larger part than the technical aspects in determining the form and content of a consultation. Training in communication could benefit from including discussions on how the practitioner's treatment philosophy influences the consultation behavior.


Stian Solem

Solem, Stian; Haaland, Åshild T.; Vogel, Patrick A.; Hansen, Bjarne; Wells, Adrian. Change in metacognitions predicts outcome in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients undergoing treatment with exposure and response prevention. Behaviour Research and Therapy 2009;47(4):301-307

Patrick A. Vogel

DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2009.01.003

Wells' (Wells, A. (1997). Cognitive therapy of anxiety disorders: a practice manual and conceptual guide. Chichester, UK: Wiley) metacognitive model of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) predicts that metacognitions must change in order for psychological treatment to be effective. The aim of this study was to explore: (1) if metacognitions change in patients undergoing exposure treatment for OCD; (2) to determine the extent to which cognitive and metacognitive change predicts symptom improvement and recovery. The sample consisted of 83 outpatients with a diagnosis of OCD who completed exposure and response prevention treatment. The Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30) and the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire (OBQ-44) were administered before treatment, after treatment, and at 12-month follow-up. Treatment resulted in significant changes in symptoms, metacognition score, responsibility and perfectionism. Regression analysis using post-treatment Y-BOCS as the dependent variable indicated that when the overlap between predictors was controlled for, only changes in metacognition were significant. Changes in metacognitions explained 22% of the variance in symptoms at post-treatment when controlling for pre-treatment symptoms and changes in mood. A further regression revealed that two MCQ-30 subscales made individual contributions. The patients had significantly higher scores compared to community controls on the MCQ-30. Patients who achieved clinical significant change had lower scores on the MCQ-30 compared to patients who did not change. The results did not change significantly from post-treatment to follow-up assessment. These findings provide further support for the importance of metacognitions in treating OCD.


Sjøberg, Lennart. Are all crowds equally wise? A comparison of political election forecasts by experts and the public. Journal of Forecasting 2009;28(1):1-18

Lennart Sjøberg

DOI: 10.1002/for.1083

Four groups made forecasts of the outcome of the Swedish Parliamentary election in the fall of 2006. They consisted of members of the public, political scientists, journalists writing about domestic politics in Swedish daily newspapers, and journalists who were editing sections of readers' letters in daily newspapers. They estimated, using a 12-step category scale, which percentage of the votes that they believed seven parties would get in the election. Data were then obtained on the outcome of the election, and on the two opinions polls closest in time to it. When median forecasts were compared across groups, it was found that the group from the public was most successful in forecasting the outcome of the election. This was in spite of the fact that the median error made by individual members of that group was about 50% larger than the median error made by members of other groups. The two polls were less efficient than the group from the public and overestimated the span between the incumbent government and the opposition by a factor of 2. The members of the public and journalists showed some wishful thinking in their forecasts. There were large and consistent individual differences in forecasting ability. Men performed better than women, as did those who expressed more interest and knowledge in politics.


G. Elisabeth Lofstad

Lofstad, Grete Elisabeth; Reinfjell, Trude; Hestad, Knut; Diseth, Trond H.. Cognitive outcome in children and adolescents treated for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with chemotherapy only. Acta Paediatrica 2009;98(1):180-186

Knut Hestad

DOI: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2008.01055.x

Objective: To examine cognitive outcome in children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in remission, treated with central nervous system prophylactic chemotherapy only.
Method: Thirty-five children and adolescents, age 8.4–15.3 years in long-term remission from ALL, 4.2–12.4 years post diagnosis, without relapse and no prediagnosis history of neurodevelopmental disorder were compared with 35 healthy controls matched for gender and age, on measures of intellectual functioning Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III).
Results: All but two of the ALL survivors treated by chemotherapy only obtained WISC-III Total Intelligence Quotient (IQ) scores in the normal range (M = 95.3), but their scores were significantly below levels for their matched controls and below normative standards for WISC-III. The difference between patients and controls was significant at the p < 0.001 level for the following measures: Total IQ, Verbal IQ, Verbal Comprehension Index, Freedom from Distraction Index and three verbal subtest scores.
Conclusions: The results indicate long-term sequelae in global cognitive functions, and indicate that verbal function, processing speed, attention and complex visual-spatial problem solving may be affected in the chemotherapy only group.


Kirsten Rasmussen

Rasmussen, Kirsten; Levander, Sten. Untreated ADHD in Adults: Are There Sex Differences in Symptoms, Comorbidity, and Impairment? Journal of Attention Disorders 2009;12(4):353-360

DOI: 10.1177/1087054708314621

Objective: To analyze sex differences among adult, never-treated patients referred for central stimulant treatment of ADHD.
Method: Data for 600 consecutive patients from northern Norway referred for evaluation by an expert team during 7 years were analyzed. General background information, diagnostic and social history, and symptom profiles were compared between previously never-treated men and women.
Results: The sex ratio was skewed. Of the previously untreated patients, more than 20% fell outside society's ordinary vocational activities or social benefit system. Most patients had the combined form, one third the inattentive type, and only 2% the hyperactive/impulsive subtype. Abuse and criminality were more common among men, and affective, eating, and somatization disorders were more common among women. Otherwise few sex differences were found.
Conclusion: AD/HD symptom intensity and subtypes did not differ between the sexes and was unrelated to age. Symptom intensity was linked with criminality, abuse, and other psychiatric problems, differentially for the two sexes.


Roger Hagen

Hagen, Roger; Nysæter, Tor Erik; Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen.Innføring i personlighetspsykologi. Tapir Akademisk Forlag 2009 (ISBN 9788251924047) 160 s.

Tor Erik Nysæter

Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair

Personlighet kan studeres og forstås på mange måter, på mange nivå og fra mange perspektiver. Denne boken gir en innføring i personlighetspsykologi som er forståelig for alle interesserte lesere. Den presenterer på en lettfattelig måte de ulike retningene innenfor personlighetspsykologien, bl.a. psykodynamisk personlighetsteori, sosial kognitiv læringsteori, trekkperspektivet og evolusjonspsykologisk teori. I lys av personlighetspsykologiske teorier blir også en rekke sentrale temaer behandlet; som hvordan personligheten utvikler seg gjennom livet, i hvilken grad personligheten er stabil eller i endring, og hvordan personligheten påvirkes av genetiske og miljømessige faktorer.


Xin-Cheng Zhao

Zhao, Xin-Cheng; Berg, Bente Gunnveig. Morphological and Physiological Characteristics of the Serotonin-Immunoreactive Neuron in the Antennal Lobe of the Male Oriental Tobacco Budworm, Helicoverpa assulta. Chemical Senses 2009;34(5):363-372

Bente Berg

DOI: 10.1093/chemse/bjp013

More than half a century ago, in 1949, the Canadian psychologist Donald Hebb suggested that the capability of learning implies particular changes in synaptic strength at the level of neural networks. Hebb proposed his idea based on experiments carried out in the marine snail Aplysia californica. The learning mechanisms studied in Aplysia involves the activation of a particular neuron type — namely, a population of modulatory neurons that releases the biogenic monoamine serotonin. In general, serotonin seems to play a prominent role as a modulator within neural networks of invertebrates, as well as vertebrates.
In humans, for example, a group of serotonergic neurons projecting from the raphe nuclei modulates chemosensory information in the brain olfactory centre, the olfactory bulb. Interestingly, insects also possess serotonergic neurons innervating the brain olfactory centre, here called the antennal lobe. In the present study, we describe physiological characteristics of a unique serotonergic antennal-lobe neuron previously identified in several insect species. The data induce new ideas regarding principles for modulation of chemosensory information within a neural network.


Department of Psychology; Publications 2007 , 2008