Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics


The picture shows the absorbed layer of CO, studied with the small systems method. Thermodynamic factors are plotted (on the right) versus inverse diameter of the smaller system, the cylinder (to the left). Equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties at the nano-scale are of interest.


Our group is concerned with development and application of a thermodynamically founded theory for transport phenomena in fluids.

The theory has two different lines of application

  • The precise description of transport phenomena
  • The calculation of lost work (energy efficiency) in non-equilibrium processes

Both lines of research are followed; to gain more understanding of the actual process on a molecular level, and to see its consequences in industrial practice. Energy conversion issues are central. The systems of study depend on the group members’ interests. At present we are concerned with

  • Phase transitions
  • Membrane transport
  • Chemical reactors
  • Distillation
  • Biological systems
  • Fuel cells
  • Electrolysis systems
  • Equilibrium and transport at the nanoscale

The theoretical development is supported by equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular simulations in order to understand the molecular behavior and physical principles needed for a theory that works for nanoscale as well as bulk. By this, we work to improve the theoretical description of the transport phenomena, and on process operation and design.



Group members


Signe Kjelstrup (Professor)
Group leader

Bjørn Hafskjold (Professor)

Fernando Bresme (Adjunct Professor)

Dick Bedeaux (Professor Emeritus)

Jørgen Svendby (Postdoc)

Thuat Trinh (Postdoc)

Chris Daub (Postdoc) 

Magnus H. Waage (Phd Candidate)

Elisa Magnanelli (Phd Candidate)

Frank Richter (Phd Candidate)

Isha Savani (Phd Candidate)

Morten Vassvik (Phd Candidate)

Satiyaraj Kandhasamy (Phd Candidate)