Aluminium Reduction Technology

Currently the world production of primary aluminium is more than 50 million tonnes with more than 50% of the production happening in China. The Norwegian production capacity is 1.3 million tonnes; however, Norwegian companies have significant productions abroad. This makes Norway one of the leading nations in aluminium production, and the Norwegian R&D community is at the forefront. Current technological developments is to increase the productivity, reduce investment costs and labour and at the same time reduce the energy consumption and reduce the CO2 footprint.

The performance of materials involved in the process and increased lifetime of the aluminium reduction cells are at the core of this technological development. The project CARMA - Reactivity of Carbon and Refractory Materials used in Metals Production Technology – aims to improve the quality of materials used in the aluminium industry and is supported by the Norwegian Research Council together with Hydro Aluminium, Alcoa Norway, Elkem Carbon and Skamol. CARMA is based on the solid research collaboration between SINTEF and NTNU.

The CARMA project educates four PhD candidates, each candidate works with a project connected to aluminium production. Below is a sketch showing an electrolysis cell, the project titles and the PhD candidates working with them.

An aluminium electrolysis cell showing the research areas focused in the CARMA project and the PhD candidates in red circles.


  1. Samuel Senanu, Christian Schøning, Stein Rørvik, Zhaohui Wang, Arne P. Ratvik, and Tor Grande, Cathode wear based on autopsy of a shutdown aluminium electrolysis cell, Light Metals 2017, pp. 561-570.
  2. Trond Brandvik, Zhaohui Wang, Arne Petter Ratvik, and Tor Grande , Investigation of Spent Refractory Lining in an Anode Baking Furnace, Light Metals 2017, pp. 1281-1288.
  3. Raymond Luneng, Søren N. Bertel, Jørgen Mikkelsen,Arne P. Ratvik, and Tor Grande, Chemical Stability of Thermal Insulating Materials in Sodium Vapour Environment, Light Metals 2017, pp. 543-550.
  4. Samuel Senanu, Tor Grande, Arne P. Ratvik, Role of pitting corrosion in the formation of potholes on carbon cathodes- A review, ICSOBA 2016.
  5. Raymond Luneng, Tor Grande, Arne P. Ratvik, Assessment of the thermodynamic stability of thermal insulating materials used in the aluminium industry, ICSOBA 2016.
  6. Trond Brandvik, Tor Grande, Arne P. Ratvik, A thermodynamic assessment of the chemical durability of the refractory lining in anode baking furnace, ICSOBA 2016. 

About us

Contact persons:

Professor Mari-Ann Einarsrud
Phone: +47 73 59 40 02

Professor Tor Grande
Phone: +47 73 59 40 84

Professor Kjell Wiik
Phone: +47 73 59 40 82

Assoc. Prof. Hilde Lea Lein
Phone: +47 73 55 08 80

 Assoc. Prof. Fride Vullum-Bruer
Phone: +47 73 59 39 76

Assoc. Prof. Sverre M. Selbach
Phone: +47 73 59 40 99

Assoc. Prof. Maria Benelmekki
Phone: +47 73 59 40 05

Assoc. Prof. Dennis Meier
Phone: +47 73 59 40 47


Assoc. Prof. Sondre K. Schnell
Phone: +47 45 27 54 63

Visiting address:
Sem Sælandsvei 12

Postal address:
Inorganic Chemistry and Ceramics Research Group
att: Mari-Ann Einarsrud
Department of Materials Science and Engineering