News from IØT

Pernille Merethe Sire Seljom successful defence of PhD thesis

Pernille Merethe Sire Seljom successful defence of PhD thesis «Stochastic...

Pernille Merethe Sire Seljom successful defence of PhD thesis

«Stochastic modelling of short-term uncertainty in long-term energy models: Applied to TIMES models of Scandinavia»

Supervisor: Professor Asgeir Tomasgard

Marius Tuft Mathisen successful defence of PhD thesis

Marius Tuft Mathisen successful defence of PhD thesis «The Growth of...

Marius Tuft Mathisen successful defence of PhD thesis

«The Growth of Research-Based Spin-Offs: Unleashing the Value of Academic Entrepreneurship»

Supervisor: Professor Øystein Widding

Nhien Nguyen successful defence of PhD thesis

Nhien Nguyen successful defence of PhD thesis «Learning from failure in...

Nhien Nguyen successful defence of PhD thesis

«Learning from failure in organizational innovation activities: Easier said than done»

Supervisor: Professor Alf Steinar Sætre

Joseph Samuel Schultz successful defence of PhD thesis

Joseph Samuel Schultz successful defence of PhD thesis «Managing innovation...

Joseph Samuel Schultz successful defence of PhD thesis

«Managing innovation processes in eldercare: Lessons from Norwegian municipalities»

Supervisor: Associate Professor Endre Sjøvold

Marte Daae-Qvale Holmemo successful defence of PhD thesis

Marte Daae-Qvale Holmemo successful defence of PhD thesis «Lean...

Marte Daae-Qvale Holmemo successful defence of PhD thesis

«Lean implementation in Norwegian public service sector»

Supervisor: Professor Monica Rolfsen

Eirik Fernandez Cuesta successful defence of PhD thesis

Eirik Fernandez Cuesta successful defence of PhD thesis «Optimization of...

Eirik Fernandez Cuesta successful defence of PhD thesis

«Optimization of Offshore Oil and Gas Logistics»

Supervisor: Professor Henrik Andersson

Stig Ødegaard Ottesen successful defence of PhD thesis

«Techno-economic models in Smart Grids: Demand side flexibility optimization for bidding and scheduling problems»

Supervisor: Professor Asgeir Tomasgard

Stig Ødegaard Ottesen successful defence of PhD thesis

«Techno-economic models in Smart Grids: Demand side flexibility optimization for bidding and scheduling problems»

Supervisor: Professor Asgeir Tomasgard

We congratulate Stig Ødegaard Ottesen with successful defense of his PhD thesis, March 9th 2017.

The title of the thesis is:

«Techno-economic models in Smart Grids: Demand side flexibility optimization for bidding and scheduling problems»

The Faculty of Economics and Management has appointed the following committee to evaluate the thesis:

Professor Pierre Pinson, Technical University of Denmark
Associate Professor Trine Krogh Boomsma, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Associate Professor Ruud Egging, NTNU
Dr. Anders Nordby Gullhav, NTNU
Associate Professor Ruud Egging at the Department of Industrial Economics and Technology Management, NTNU, has administered the committee’s work until 7 March 2017. Dr. Anders Nordby Gullhav at the Department of Industrial Economics and Technology Management, NTNU has administered the committee's work from 8 March 2017.

The trial lecture was held on the following topic:

«Scenario generation, reduction and validation for prices in sequential electricity markets»

The candidate’s main supervisor has been Professor Asgeir Tomasgard, NTNU. The candidate’s co-supervisor has been Professor Magnus Korpås, NTNU.

 

Summary of the thesis

Introduction of power-intensive appliances such as electric vehicle chargers and induction cooktops, as well as technologies for local renewable electricity generation from solar panels and wind turbines will provide challenges for distribution in the coming years. High power peaks, rapid power changes and less predictability will increase the need for transmission capacity and reserves. Traditionally, such problems are met with costly investments in new capacity. An alternative approach is to use flexibility from the end users, which means that generation and consumption of electricity is changed as a response to prices or other signals. Introduction of batteries in buildings, advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) and the Internet of Things (IoT) increase the potential for demand side flexibility. Altogether, these technologies constitute the concept denoted the Smart Grid.

To realize this increased flexibility potential, financial incentives must be introduced. Major changes are therefore expected in the electricity market in the coming years, including introduction of new, innovative contract types and business models, changes in market designs and the establishment of new market roles.

To maximize the benefit of demand side flexibility, there is a need for development of new decision support models. This thesis proposes and analyzes models for trading in different markets and for the scheduling of flexible devices in an operational situation. The models are based on operations research. The decision problems are mathematically formulated, and a particular focus is on how to handle uncertain parameters, such as consumption, generation and market prices. Stochastic programming is used for this purpose.

The thesis consists of four articles. In Article 1 a basic model is established where flexibility is divided into different classes. The article analyzes a prosumer in the retail market, where flexibility gives cost savings by exploiting price variations over a day, between energy carriers and by reducing the demand charge at the grid tariffs. In Article 2 several prosumers are coordinated via an aggregator who buys and sells electricity in a spot market and where imbalances are settled in a balancing market. Article 3 focuses on flexibility trade, where the value of an aggregated flexibility portfolio is maximized by trading in three sequential markets. The last article analyzes the decision problem to a service provider who operates a charging site for electric vehicles, where the capacity is limited. All articles contain case studies that have been conducted in close cooperation with companies in the Norwegian electricity market.

 

Sammendrag av avhandlingen

Innføring av effektkrevende forbruksapparater som elbiler-ladere og induksjonskoketopper, samt teknologi for lokal, fornybar elektrisitetsproduksjon fra sol og vind vil gi utfordringer for distribusjonsnettet i årene som kommer. Høye effekttopper, raske effektendringer og mindre forutsigbarhet vil gi økt behov for overføringskapasitet og reserver. Tradisjonelt vil slike problemer møtes med kostnadskrevende investeringer i ny kapasitet. En alternativ tilnærming er å benytte fleksibilitet hos sluttbrukerne, som innebærer at innmating og uttak av elektrisitet endres som følge av priser eller andre signaler. Innføring av batterier i bygg, avanserte målings- og styringssystemer (AMS) og tingenes internett (IoT) gjør at potensialet for sluttbrukerfleksibilitet er økende. Til sammen utgjør disse teknologiene konseptet som benevnes det smarte nettet, Smart Grid.

For å realisere dette økte fleksibilitetspotensialet, må økonomiske insentiver innføres. Det forventes derfor store endringer i elektrisitetsmarkedet i årene som kommer, blant annet ved introduksjon av nye, innovative kontraktstyper og forretningsmodeller, endringer i markedsdesign og etablering av nye markedsroller.  

For å maksimere nytteverdien av sluttbrukerfleksibilitet, vil det være behov for utvikling av nye beslutningsstøttemodeller. Denne avhandlingen foreslår og analyserer modeller for handel i ulike markeder og for planlegging av hvordan fleksible enheter skal benyttes i en driftssituasjon. Modellene baseres på operasjonsanalyse. Beslutningsproblemene modelleres matematisk, og det fokuseres spesielt på hvordan optimale beslutninger skal tas under forutsetning av at enkelte parametere, som forbruk, produksjon og markedspriser, kan være usikre på beslutningstidspunktet. Til dette benyttes stokastisk programmering.

Avhandlingen består av fire artikler. I artikkel 1 etableres en grunnleggende modell der fleksibilitet deles inn i ulike klasser. Artikkelen analyserer en prosument i sluttbrukermarkedet, der fleksibiliteten gir kostnadsbesparelser ved å utnytte prisvariasjoner over døgnet, mellom energibærere og ved å redusere effektledd på nettleiekontrakter. I artikkel 2 koordineres flere prosumenter via en aggregator som kjøper og selger elektrisitet i et spotmarked og der ubalanser avregnes i et balansemarked. Artikkel 3 rendyrker fleksibilitetshandel, der verdien av en aggregert fleksibilitetsportefølje maksimeres ved å handle i tre sekvensielle markeder. Den siste artikkelen analyserer beslutningsproblemet til en tjenestetilbyder som drifter et ladested for elbiler, der kapasiteten er begrenset. Alle artiklene inneholder case-studier som er gjennomført i tett samarbeid med aktører i det norske kraftmarkedet.

Inge Norstad successful defence of PhD thesis

«Ship routing and scheduling with speed optimization and voyage separation requirements»

Supervisor: Professor Kjetil Fagerholt

Inge Norstad successful defence of PhD thesis

«Ship routing and scheduling with speed optimization and voyage separation requirements»

Supervisor: Professor Kjetil Fagerholt

We congratulate Inge Norstad with successful defense of his PhD thesis, March 8th 2017.

The title of the thesis is:

«Ship routing and scheduling with speed optimization and voyage separation requirements»

The Faculty of Economics and Management has appointed the following committee to evaluate the thesis:

Professor David Pisinger, Technical University of Denmark
Senior Lecturer Maria Battarra, University of Bath, United Kingdom
Professor Bjørn Nygreen, NTNU
Professor Bjørn Nygreen at the Department of Industrial Economics and Technology Management, NTNU, has administered the committee’s work.

The trial lecture was held on the following topic:

«Models and algorithms for land transportation of people illustrated by practical examples»

The candidate’s main supervisor has been Professor Kjetil Fagerholt, NTNU. Co-supervisor has been Professor Marielle Christiansen, NTNU.

 

Summary of the thesis

This PhD thesis discusses how operations research (OR) can be used to help ship operators with finding good solution for their tactical planning problems. The research has been a part of the larger research project DESIMAL (Decision support in maritime logistics) at NTNU.

The focus of this thesis has been on two important application-driven extensions of the ship routing and scheduling problem. The first extension is to include sailing speed as decision variables in the model. The second one is voyage separation requirements.

This thesis consists of five scientific papers. The first three deal with introducing sailing speed as decision variables in maritime routing and scheduling. Traditionally, mathematical models of ship routing problems assume that a ship has a fixed speed and fuel consumption rate. This leads to fixed sailing times and fixed sailing costs for a given distance. However, in real life, it is possible for the ship to adjust the speed within an interval, and hence change the sailing time. Furthermore, the fuel consumption rate is exponentially dependent on the speed. By optimizing the speed of each leg on a ship's route, without violating required time windows, the total fuel consumption can be reduced. The papers presents both exact and heuristic solution methods for the speed optimization problem. Computational experiments show that solving the speed optimization and the tramp ship routing and scheduling problem simultaneously, significantly improves the total fleet profit, and also reduces harmful emissions.

The last two papers consider the real tactical planning problem of a tramp ship routing company. The problem is to allocate ships of a fleet to a set of voyages. The contracts between the shipping company and the cargo owners state that voyages on the same trade line should be fairly evenly spread. This leads to a maritime fleet deployment problem with voyage separation requirements. One arc flow and two path flow formulations are presented and compared. A path flow model with routes as variables is solved by a priori column generation, while another path flow model with schedules as variables is solved by a branch-and-price approach.  

 

Sammendrag av avhandlingen

Denne PhD-avhandlingen tar for seg hvordan operasjonsanalyse (OA) kan brukes for å hjelpe skipsplanleggere med å finne gode løsninger for sine taktiske planleggingsproblem. Forskningen har vært en del av et større forskningsprosjekt DESIMAL (Decision support in maritime logistics) ved NTNU.

Fokuset for denne avhandlingen har vært på to viktige anvendelsesstyrte utvidelser av skipsrutingsproblemet. Den første utvidelsen er å ta med seilingshastighet som beslutningsvariabler i modellen. Den andre er krav til tidsseparasjon mellom reiser.

Avhandlingen består av fem vitenskapelige artikler. De tre første handler om innføring av seilingshastighet som beslutningsvariabel i maritim ruting og schedulering. Tradisjonelt sett har matematiske modeller for skipsrutingsproblemer antatt at et skip alltid seiler med samme hastighet og har en fast rate for drivstofforbruk. I virkeligheten kan imidlertid skipet variere hastigheten innenfor et gitt intervall og dermed endre seilingstiden. Videre, så er forbruket av drivstoff eksponentielt avhengig av hastigheten. Ved å optimere hastigheten på hvert leg av skipets rute, uten å bryte tidsvinduene, kan det totale drivstofforbruket reduseres. Artiklene presenterer både eksakte og heuristiske løsningsmetoder for hastighetsoptimeringsproblemet. Beregninger viser at ved å optimere hastigheten samtidig som man løser rutingsproblemet, kan man oppnå betydelig forbedring i totalt resultat for flåten, og også redusere skadelige utslipp.

De to siste artiklene omhandler et virkelig taktisk planleggingsproblem for et trampshippingsrederi. Problemet er å allokere flåtens skip til et sett av reiser. Kontraktene mellom rederiet og vareeierne sier at reiser på samme rute skal være rimelig jevnt fordelt i tid. Dette gir oss et flåtedeployeringsproblem med krav til reiseseparasjon. En bueflyt-modell og to ulike stiflyt-modeller presenteres og sammenlignes. Den ene stiflyt-modellen bruker ruter som beslutningsvariable og løses med a priori kolonnegenerering, mens den andre bruker schedules som variabler og blir løst med en branch-and-price-tilnærming.

Kenneth Stålsett successful defence of PhD thesis

«At the Frontline: Enabling Teams to Adapt to Uncertainty and Ambiguity»

Supervisor: Associate Professor Endre Sjøvold

Kenneth Stålsett successful defence of PhD thesis

«At the Frontline: Enabling Teams to Adapt to Uncertainty and Ambiguity»

Supervisor: Associate Professor Endre Sjøvold

We congratulate Kenneth Stålsett with successful defense of his PhD thesis, February 6th 2017.

The title of the thesis is:

«At the Frontline: Enabling Teams to Adapt to Uncertainty and Ambiguity»

The Faculty of Economics and Management has appointed the following committee to evaluate the thesis:

Associate Professor Eva Hammar Chiriac, Linköping University, Sweden
Commander Tommy Krabberød (PhD), Royal Norwegian Naval Academy, Norway
Professor Arild Aspelund, NTNU
Professor Arild Aspelund at the Department of Industrial Economics and Technology Management, NTNU, has administered the committee’s work.

The trial lecture was held on the following topic:

«Can you predict team performance? Discuss the fruitfulness of using Spin theory»

The candidate’s main supervisor has been Associate Professor Endre Sjøvold, NTNU. Co-supervisor has been Professor Elsebeth Holmen, NTNU.

 

Summary of the thesis

This thesis investigates various aspects that are important for developing teams that are able to excel through uncertainty. It is possible to read the Part I as a short summary of the whole work. The first part begins with a literature review that can be used to understand the various trends in the team literature, and thereby help leaders to understand the implications from the different perspectives. At the same time, the perspective I advocate builds on the premise of enabling teams to adapt to their contextual demands, which means that a focus upon the teams’ internal interplay is highly important. The second part of the thesis consists of four separate articles that visit topics such as team building; team insights and perceptions; the distribution of influence, and leadership perspectives and structures. These articles can be read separately, but reading the whole thesis will help to give a broader insight.

For many leaders, some of the suggestions will be inconsistent with long-held leadership- and team theories. The focus on the “soft” sides of teamwork, instead of task and procedures, can be quite different from established practices and knowledge bases. Indeed, the implications of focusing on behaviors, curiosity, and collective mutual understanding can be quite far from focusing on technical and task-oriented discussions. However, these “soft” oriented discussions help teams to foster new insight and knowledge and to facilitate adaptable behaviors.

The idea of abandoning an authoritative controlling leadership style in crisis settings will truly be counterintuitive and surprising, and maybe even provoking, for many leaders. Nevertheless, I hope that reading this thesis helps to broaden leadership perspectives and, by this, spark interesting discussions within organizations that rely on teamwork in uncertain and ambiguous contexts.

 

Sammendrag av avhandlingen

Denne avhandlingen ser på ulike elementer som er viktig for å utvikle grupper som evner å håndtere og tilpasse seg usikkerhet og stadig endrende omgivelser. Det er mulig å lese Del 1 som et kort sammendrag av hele arbeidet. Denne delen begynner med en litteraturgjennomgang som kan brukes til å forstå de ulike trendene som eksisterer i team og gruppelitteraturen. Det perspektivet jeg framhever bygger på ideen om at team må evne å tilpasse seg de kontekstuelle kravene, noe som gjør at det interne samspillet mellom medlemmene er av avgjørende betydning. Den andre delen av avhandlingen består av 4 artikler. Disse ser på tematikk som teambuilding, gruppeinnsikt og forståelse, distribusjon av dominans, og lederskapsperspektiver og strukturer. Disse fire artiklene kan bli lest hver for seg, men å lese hele avhandlingen kronologisk vil sannsynligvis gi leseren både bredere og dypere innsikt.

For mange ledere vil noen av funnene og implikasjonene være inkonsistent med deres forankrede perspektiver og teorier. Det er særlig fokuset på den “myke” delen av teamarbeid, framfor oppgaver og prosedyrer, som vil avvike mest fra etablert praksis og forståelse. I så måte anbefaler jeg å fokusere å mellommenneskelig atferd framfor teknologi- og oppgaverelaterte dimensjoner. Samtidig, det er dette “myke” fokuset som hjelper grupper til å utvikle nye perspektiver og kunnskaper. Igjennom et slikt samspill er team bedre rustet til å håndtere nye og endrende situasjoner.

Ideen om å forlate en dominerende og autoritær lederskapspraksis i krisesituasjoner vil utvilsomt være overraskende, og kanskje provoserende, for mange ledere. Uansett, jeg håper denne avhandlingen bidrar til å utvikle nye lederskapsperspektiver, og i så måte også setter i gang interessante diskusjoner innad i organisasjoner som er avhengige av tilpasningsdyktige team.

Vegar Lein Ausrød successful defence of PhD thesis

«Commercialization of renewable energy in rural India: Entrepreneurial activities for building a profitable venture at the base of the pyramid»

Supervisor: Professor Roger Sørheim

Vegar Lein Ausrød successful defence of PhD thesis

«Commercialization of renewable energy in rural India: Entrepreneurial activities for building a profitable venture at the base of the pyramid»

Supervisor: Professor Roger Sørheim

We congratulate Vegar Lein Ausrød with successful defense of his PhD, December 14th 2016.

The title of the thesis is

«Commercialization of renewable energy in rural India: Entrepreneurial activities for building a profitable venture at the base of the pyramid»

The Faculty of Social Sciences and Technology Management has appointed the following committee to evaluate the thesis:

  • Associate Professor Diamanto Politis, Lund University, Sweden
  • Associate Professor Steffen Korsgaard, Aarhus University, Denmark
  • Professor Øystein Moen, NTNU

Professor Øystein Moen at the Department of Industrial Economics and Technology Management, NTNU, has administered the committee’s work.

The trial lecture was on on the following topic

«The business model concept: past, present and future»

The candidate’s main supervisor has been Professor Roger Sørheim, NTNU. Co-supervisor has been Professor Helle Neergaard, Aarhus University.

Summary of the thesis

This thesis seeks to achieve two objectives. First it aims to understand how entrepreneurs are able to provide products and services to the base of the pyramid (BoP) while simultaneously generate profits. Thus, the overall research question of the thesis is: how do commercially driven entrepreneurs build a firm in a BoP context? The answer to this unfolds in the cover of this thesis by combining the theoretical contributions found in each of the four articles. Second, the thesis seeks to contribute to existing theories and literature often applied to explain entrepreneurial actions. This is done through the four articles.

Article 1 seeks to contribute to resource-based theory (RBT) as it says little about resource management and its interplay with context. The findings suggest that entrepreneurs at the BoP can apply dispersed spatial and business contexts to structure and bundle resources.

Article 2 contributes to resource management and resource mobilization. This article argues that the inability of presumed strategic resources to become intricately embedded in the local context is the reason for their failure. Conversely, the ability of presumed ordinary and weak resources to become intricately embedded in the local context is the reason for their success.

Article 3 unfolds the business model design dilemma of adapting to or shaping the context in which they are deployed. Specifically designed interim business models in which each model design either facilitates an “adaptation to” process or a “shaping of” process.

Article 4 focuses on the modes of growth. This article suggests that growth modes should be studied in combination with the business model; that not only organic growth takes place in new ventures; and it offers a perspective to understand erratic growth patterns in a new venture.

Because creating profitable firms targeting the BoP is an under-explored and complex phenomenon, a qualitative research design has been adopted. All research questions are answered through a single case study of Husk Power Systems (HPS), the world-leading mini-utility firm providing rural electricity based on renewable energy sources for the BoP segment.

 

Sammendrag av avhandlingen

Denne avhandlingen har to hovedformål. Den bidrar til en forståelse av hvordan entreprenører kan tilby produkter og tjenester til verdens fattigste – også omtalt som “the base of the pyramid” (BoP) – under kommersielle betingelser. Det overordnede forskningsspørsmålet er: Hvordan bygger kommersielt motiverte entreprenører et selskap i en BoP kontekst? Ved å kombinere de teoretiske bidragene i hver artikkel, gis svaret på dette spørsmålet i kappa av avhandlingen. Det andre formålet med avhandlingen er å bidra til eksisterende teorier og litteratur som ofte blir brukt til å forklare entreprenørielle handlinger. Dette gjøres i de fire artiklene.

Artikkel 1 bidrar til ressursbasert teori (RBT) som kun i begrenset omfang behandler ledelse av ressurser i samspill med kontekst. Funnene viser at BoP-entreprenører kan ta i bruk ulike kontekster for å strukturere og kombinere ressurser.            

Artikkel 2 bidrar til teorier for ressursledelse og –mobilisering. Det argumenteres for at antatt strategiske ressurser feiler på grunn av deres manglende evne til å integreres i konteksten. Likeledes kan antatt ordinære eller svake ressurser bli verdifulle nettopp på grunn av deres integrasjonsevne.

Artikkel 3 viser at det oppstår et dilemma når en forretningsmodell skal utvikles: Skal forretningsmodellen tilpasses kontekst eller skal den forsøke å endre konteksten den skal implementeres i. Det argumenteres for at midlertidige tilpassede forretningsmodeller kan støtte en ”tilpasning til” eller en ”endring av” kontekst.

Artikkel 4 tar for seg vekst. Artikkelen hevder at ulike vekstformer bør sees i sammenheng med valg av forretningsmodell, og at vekst i nye selskaper ikke kan begrenses til organisk vekst. Den forklarer også hvordan ulineære vekstmønstre i nye selskaper kan forstås.

Etablering av lønnsomme selskaper rettet mot BoP har i liten grad blitt studert, og temaet er komplekst. En kvalitativ tilnærming er derfor velegnet for forskningsformålet, og et slikt design har blitt brukt i dette arbeidet. Alle forskningsspørsmålene har blitt besvart gjennom et enkelt case studium av Husk Power Systems (HPS). HPS er verdensledende innenfor minielektrisitetsnettverk basert på fornybar energi i BoP.


Per Arne Vidar Sjønøst