TEMAR (TErrestrial, Marine and Aerial Remote sensing for archaeology)
TEMAR is an emerging research group composed of experts in terrestrial, marine and airborne sensing technologies, working in archaeological applications and based at the NTNU University Museum.
We use, test and develop methods and advanced technologies in order to study and record buried, submerged or visible cultural and environmental assets in a non-destructive and minimally-invasive manner. In doing so, we apply the best survey strategies using sophisticated multi-sensor technologies to explore both the subsurface and submerged environments. Our breadth of expertise also includes staff with solid experience in physical and chemical characterisation of anthropogenic soil, geospatial and predictive modelling using GIS platforms, photogrammetry and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) operation.
We are the first research group in Norway with the capacity to deploy from in-house both the expertise and technologies required to explore hidden cultural remains from the air, ground-surface or underwater. In close collaboration with NTNU’s cutting-edge research communities in engineering, we continually work to maximise cost-efficient survey methodologies and ensure high quality results.
Our main activities focus on the formulation and implementation of research projects in archaeological prospection in association with colleagues in the Department of Archaeology of the NTNU University Museum, and other national and international partners. Furthermore, we provide assistance to public and commercial stakeholders with interests in cultural heritage management and undertake commissioned work. We have extensive experience in high resolution and large-area geophysical characterisation as part of landscape or intra-site projects including the use of LIDAR and drone technology. Our versatile field experience spans from prospecting Nordic environments to Mediterranean and Middle East archaeological sites, covering a wide range of chronologies and types of features.
Terrestrial: Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) including stepped-frequency and pulsed systems, frequency-domain electromagnetic (FDEM) induction, earth resistance and magnetometry
Marine: Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV), remotely operated vehicles (ROV) and unmanned surface vehicles (USV) deploying a range of acoustic and optical sensors
Airborne: Airborne laser scanning (LIDAR), unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV/drone) and aerial photogrammetry
- 3D-RADAR GeoScope Mk IV GPR system with DXG-1820 ground coupled antenna array and towing trolley
- GSSI Sir 3000 GPR system with option for 400 MHz or 900 MHz center frequency monostatic antennas
- GF Instruments CMD-MiniExplorer multi-depth electromagnetic conductivity multi-coil meter
- Allied Tigre 64-probe earth resistance meter for electrical resistivity tomography (ERT)
- Bartington Grad601-2 dual sensor fluxgate gradiometer
- Bartington MS2 magnetic susceptibility system with MS2B and MS2D sensors
- Side-scan sonar (SSS)
- Multibeam echo sounder
- Synthetic aperture sonar (SAS)
- Underwater stereo camera
- Underwater hyperspectral imager (UHI)
- DJI Phantom 3 Pro Quadrocopter UAV system with 1/2.3” CMOS imaging sensor (effective pixels: 12.4 M). Lens FOV 94°, 20 mm (35 mm format equivalent) f/2.8 focus at ∞
- DJI Phantom 4 Pro Quadrocopter UAV system with 1’’ CMOS imaging sensor (Effective pixels: 20M). Lens 84° 8.8 mm/24 mm (35 mm format equivalent) f/2.8 - f/11 auto focus at 1 m - ∞