APA examples

APA examples

Choose a source you want to see an example of.

The example shows you how to write references in-text and in a reference list. It also shows you which kind of reference to choose when using EndNote.

Norsk versjon: APA-eksempler

Icon for Academic Writing: blue circle with white pencil in the middle See also: Academic Writing and Using the APA reference style.

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Structure/template

Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Book title in italics [Translated title – if applicable] (Edition - if available). Place: Publisher. 

Add an English translation of the title in square brackets if the source used is not in English.

In a reference list

Creme, P., & Lea, M. R. (2003). Writing at university (2nd ed.). Maidenhead: Open University Press.

In text

(Creme & Lea, 2003, p. 10)

In EndNote

Add as “Book”.

Fill out the fields: Author (use “enter” between each author if more than one), Year, Title, Place Published, Publisher, Edition (if applicable).

Structure/template

Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Book title in italics [Translated title – if applicable]. DOI
Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Book title in italics [Translated title – if applicable]. Place: Publisher. Retrieved from https://... 

 Add an English translation of the title in square brackets if the source used is not in English.

In a reference list

Wilbur, J. (2014). A grammar of Pite Saami. https://doi.org/10.17169/langsci.b17.34

In text

(Wilbur, 2014)

In EndNote

Add as “Electronic Book”.

Fill out the fields Author (use “enter” between each author if more than one), Year, Title, DOI.

Structure/template

Surname author, Initial(s). (Year). Title of chapter [Translated title – if applicable]. In Initial(s) Surname editor (Ed.), Book title in italics (Edition - if available, page). Place: Publisher. 

Add an English translation of the title in square brackets if the source used is not in English.

In a reference list

Beizer, J. L., & Timiras, M. L. (1994). Pharmacology and drug management in the elderly. In P. S. Timiras (Ed.), Physiological basis of aging and geriatrics (2nd ed., pp. 279-284). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 

In text

(Beizer & Timiras, 1994)

In EndNote

Add as “Book Section”.

Fill out the fields: Author (use “enter” between each author if more than one), Year, Title, Editor (use “enter” between each if more than one), Book Title, Place Published, Publisher, Pages, Edition (if applicable).

To reference a chapter in an edited book, see example book chapter.

Structure/template

Surname editor, Initial(s). (Ed.). (Year). Book title in italics [Translated title – if applicable] (Edition – if available). Place: Publisher. 

Add an English translation of the title in square brackets if the source used is not in English.

In a reference list

Fermann, G. (Ed.). (1997). International politics of climate change: key issues and critical actors. Oslo: Scandinavian University Press. 

In text

(Fermann, 1997)

In EndNote

Add as “Edited Book”.

Fill out the fields: Editor (use “enter” between each editor if more than one), Year, Title, Place Published, Publisher, Edition (if applicable).

Structure/template

Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Article title [Translated title – if applicable]. Title of journal in italics, volume in italics(number), page. DOI – if available 
Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Article title [Translated title – if applicable]. Title of journal in italics, volume in italics(number), page. Retrieved from https://... 

If retrieved from the Internet and no DOI has been assigned, give URL. Give the URL of the journal’s web site.

Add an English translation of the title in square brackets if the source used is not in English.

In a reference list

Kwan, I., & Mapstone, J. (2004). Visibility aids for pedestrians and cyclists: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 36, 305-312. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0001-4575(03)00008-3 

Issue number is not included as the journal uses continuous pagination.

Kaslegard, B. (2018). Kvar er «heime»? [Where is "home"?]. Samtiden, 128(1), 72-77. Retrieved from https://samtiden.no

In text

(Kwan & Mapstone, 2004)
(Kaslegard, 2018)

In EndNote

Article from a printed journal: Add as “Journal Article”.

Article retrieved from the Internet: Add as “Electronic Article”.

Fill out the fields: Author (use “enter” between each author if more than one), Year, Title, Journal, Volume, Issue (if applicable), Pages, DOI.

If retrieved from the Internet and no DOI has been assigned, use the field URL. 

Structure/template

Surname author, Initial(s). (Publication year). Title of paper [Translated title – if applicable]. In Initial(s) Surname editor (Ed.), Conference Name in italics (page). Place: Publisher. 

 Add an English translation of the title in square brackets if the source used is not in English.

In a reference list

Nørvåg, K. (2003). Space-efficient support for temporal text indexing in a document archive context. In T. Koch & I. Sølvberg (Eds.), Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries, 7th European Conference, ECDL 2003 Trondheim, Norway (pp. 511-522). Berlin: Springer. 

In text

(Nørvåg, 2003)

In EndNote

Add as “Book Section”.

Fill out the fields: Author (use “enter” between each author if more than one), Year, Title, Editor (use “enter” between each if more than one), Book Title, Place Published, Publisher, Pages.

Structure/template

Surname, Initial(s). (Year, Date). Title of article [Translated title – if applicable]. Title of newspaper in italics, page.  
Surname, Initial(s). (Year, Date). Title of article [Translated title – if applicable]. Title of newspaper in italics. Retrieved from https://... 

To reference an online newspaper article, give URL. Give the URL of the newspaper’s web site when the article is available by search, e.g. Retrieved from https://www.aftenposten.no

Add an English translation of the title in square brackets if the source used is not in English.

In a reference list

Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com

In text

(Brody, 2007)

In EndNote

Add as “Newspaper Article”.

Fill out the fields: Reporter, Year, Title, Newspaper, Pages (if printed newspaper), Issue Date, URL.

Structure/template

Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis in italics [Translated title – if applicable] (Doctoral dissertation). Institution, Place. 
Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis in italics [Translated title – if applicable] (Doctoral dissertation, Institution). Retrieved from https://... 

 Add an English translation of the title in square brackets if the source used is not in English.

In a reference list

Hasund, I. K. (2003). The discourse markers like in English and liksom in Norwegian teenage language: A corpus-based, cross-linguistic study (Doctoral dissertation). University of Bergen, Bergen.

In text

(Hasund, 2003)

In EndNote

Add as “Thesis”.

Fill out the fields: Author (use “enter” between each author if more than one), Year, Title, Place Published, University, Thesis Type. (If retrieved from the Internet, replace Place Published and University with URL, and include the name of the institution in Thesis Type).

Official Norwegian report (NOU)

Structure/template

NOU Year: number. (Year). Title in italics [Translated title – if applicable]. Place: Publisher. 
NOU Year: number. (Year). Title in italics [Translated title – if applicable]. Retrieved from https://... 

Add an English translation of the title in square brackets if the source used is not in English.

In a reference list

NOU 2017: 2. (2017). Integrasjon og tillit: Langsiktige konsekvenser av høy innvandring [Integration and trust: Long-term consequences of high immigration]. Retrieved from https://www.regjeringen.no

In text

(NOU 2017: 2, p. 45)

In EndNote

Add as “Government Document”.

Fill out the fields: Author (add NOU year: number as author with a comma at the end), Year, Title, Place Published, Publisher. (If retrieved from the Internet, replace Place Published and Publisher with URL).

Structure/template

Ministry. (Year). Title in italics [Translated title – if applicable] (Designation number (session)). Retrieved from https://...

Add an English translation of the title in square brackets if the source used is not in English.

In a reference list

Ministry of Health and Care Services. (2013). Morgendagens omsorg [Future care] (Meld. St. 29 (2012-2013)). Retrieved from https://www.regjeringen.no

In text

(Ministry of Health and Care Services, 2013)

In EndNote

Add as “Report”.

Fill out the fields: Author (with a comma after the name of the institution), Year, Title, Report Number, URL.

Norwegian law

Structure/template

Short title. (Year). Title [Translated title – if applicable] (date code). Retrieved from https://...

Add an English translation of the title in square brackets if the source used is not in English.

In a reference list

Straffeloven. (2005). Lov om straff [The penal code] (LOV-2005-05-20-28). Retrieved from https://lovdata.no/lov/2005-05-20-28

Use Lovdata (https://lovdata.no) to find the law's short title and date code.

In text

(Straffeloven, 2005, § 20)

In EndNote

Add as “Web Page”.

Fill out the fields: Author (the law’s short title), Year, Title (the law’s full title and date code), URL.

Structure/template

Organization. (Year). Title of the standard in italics [Translated title – if applicable] (Standard No.). Retrieved from https://...

Add an English translation of the title in square brackets if the source used is not in English.

In a reference list

International Organization for Standardization. (2005). Industrial sewing machines: Safety requirements for sewing machines, units and systems (ISO Standard No. 10821). Retrieved from http://www.standard.no/no/Nettbutikk/produktkatalogen/Produktpresentasjon/?ProductID=113554

In text

(International Organization for Standardization, 2005)

In EndNote

Add as “Report”.

Fill out the fields: Author (with a comma after the name of the organization), Year, Title, Report Number, URL.

Structure/template

Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of the report in italics [Translated title – if applicable] (Report No.). Place: Publisher.
Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of the report in italics [Translated title – if applicable] (Report No.). Retrieved from https://...

To reference a report retrieved online, replace information about place and publisher by URL.

Add an English translation of the title in square brackets if the source used is not in English.

In a reference list

Amundsen, I. (2010). Support for parliaments: Tanzania and beyond (CMI report R 2010:8). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/11250/2436092 

In text

(Amundsen, 2010)

In EndNote

Printed report: Add as “Government Document”.

Report retrieved from the Internet: Add as “Report".

Printed report: Fill out the fields Author (use “enter” between each author if more than one), Year, Title, Place Published, Publisher, Report Number,  

Report retrieved from the Internet: Fill out the fields Author (use “enter” between each author if more than one), Year, Title, Report Number, URL.

Structure/template

Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title [Translated title – if applicable]. Retrieved from https://...

Give publication date or use the date on which the content was last updated.

Do not include retrieval date unless the web page content is subject to frequent change. If needed, use this format: Retrieved October 20, 2017, from https://...

Add an English translation of the title in square brackets if the source used is not in English.

In a reference list

Nielsen, J. (2012, January 4). Usability 101: Introduction to usability. Retrieved from https://www.nngroup.com

In text

(Nielsen, 2012)

In EndNote

Add as “Web Page”.

Fill out the fields: Author (use “enter” between each author if more than one), Year, Title, Last Update Date (if applicable), URL.

Structure/template

Organization or Institution. (Year). Title [Translated title – if applicable]. Retrieved from https://...

Give publication date or use the date on which the content was last updated.

Do not include retrieval date unless the web page content is subject to frequent change. If needed, use this format: Retrieved October 20, 2017, from https://...

Add an English translation of the title in square brackets if the source used is not in English.

In a reference list

Norwegian Directorate of Health. (2018, February 28). Authorisation and license for health personnel. Retrieved from https://helsedirektoratet.no/english/authorisation-and-license-for-health-personnel

In text

(Norwegian Directorate of Health, 2018)

In EndNote

Add as “Web page”

Fill out the fields: Author (with a comma after the name of the organization or institution), Year, Title, Last Update Date (if applicable), URL.

To reference an entry in a printed encyclopedia, see example book chapter.

Structure/template

With an identified author:

Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of the entry [Translated title – if applicable]. In Initial(s) Surname editor (Ed.), Title of the encyclopedia in italics (Edition - if available, page). Retrieved from https://...

Add an English translation of the title in square brackets if the source used is not in English.

Without an identified author:

Title of the entry. (Year). In Initial(s) Surname editor (Ed.), Title of the encyclopedia in italics (Edition - if available, page). Retrieved from https://...

In a reference list

Without an identified author:

Psychology. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved October 14, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychology

Retrieval date is included in this reference because the content may change over time.

As no publication date is available, n.d. (for "no date") is entered.

In text

Without an identified author:

(“Psychology,” n.d.)

In EndNote

Add as “Electronic Book Section”.

Fill out the fields: Author (if the entry has an author), Year, Title, Editor (if applicable), Book Title, Edition (if applicable), Pages (if applicable), URL.

Structure/template

Surname, Initial(s). (Year, Date published). Title of the blog post [Translated title – if applicable] [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://...

In a reference list

Mathis, T. (2015, August 12). What is human systems integration? [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://blog.apabooks.org/2015/08/12/what-is-human-systems-integration

In text

(Mathis, 2015) 

In EndNote

Add as “Blog”.

Fill out the fields: Author, Year, Title of Entry, Type of Medium, Last Update Date (if applicable), URL.

Structure/template

Surname artist, Initial(s). (Year). Title of work in italics [Translated title – if applicable] [Medium]. Place: Institution.
Surname artist, Initial(s). (Year). Title of work in italics [Translated title – if applicable] [Medium]. Retrieved from http://...

If the institution has a web site where you can view the painting, give the URL of the web site, e.g. Retrieved from https://www.moma.org/collection/

In a reference list

Condo, G. (2009). The fallen butler [Painting]. New York: Museum of Modern Art.

In text

(Condo, 2009)

In EndNote

Add as: "Audiovisual Material".

Fill out the fields: Author, Year, Title, Place Published, Publisher, Type.

Examples of a reference list in APA style

Examples of a reference list in APA style

Beizer, J. L., & Timiras, M. L. (1994). Pharmacology and drug management in the elderly. In P. S. Timiras (Ed.), Physiological basis of aging and geriatrics (2nd ed., pp. 279-284). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 
Creme, P., & Lea, M. R. (2003). Writing at university (2nd ed.). Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Kwan, I., & Mapstone, J. (2004). Visibility aids for pedestrians and cyclists: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 36, 305-312. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0001-4575(03)00008-3 

Contact

Contact