Harvard-examples

Choose a source you want to see an example of. 

The example shows you how to write references in-text and in a reference list. It also shows you which kind of reference to choose when using EndNote.

Norsk versjon: Harvard-eksempler

Icon for Academic Writing: blue circle with white pencil in the middle See also: Academic Writing and Using the Harvard reference style.

Book and E-book

Structure/template

Surname, Initial(s). (Year) Book title in italics. Edition - if available. Place: Publisher.

In a reference list

One author:

Singh, J.P. (2010) Globalized arts: The entertainment economy and cultural identity. Columbia: Columbia University Press.

Many authors:

Dybvig, D.D. and Dybvig, M. (2003) Det tenkende mennesket: filosofi- og vitenskapshistorie med vitenskapsteori. 2nd edn. Trondheim: Tapir akademisk forlag.

In text

One author:

(Singh, 2010, p. 20)

Many authors:

(Dybvig and Dybvig, 2003)

In EndNote

Book: Add as “Book”.

Fill out the fields: Author (use “enter” in between each author if others), Year, Title, Place Published, Publisher.

E-Book: Add as “Electronic Book”.

Fill out the fields: Author (use “enter” in between each author if others), Year, Title, URL.

Book Chapter

Structure/template

Surname, Initial(s). (Year) Title of chapter, in Surname of the editor(s), Initial(s) (ed.) Book title in italics. Edition. Place: Publisher, Page.

In a reference list

Beizer, J.L. and Timiras, M.L. (1994) Pharmacology and drug management in the elderly, in Timiras, P.S. (ed.) Physiological basis of aging and geriatrics. 2nd edn. Boca Raton: CRC Press pp. 279-284.

In text

(Beizer and Timiras, 1994)

In EndNote

Add as “Book Section”.

Fill out the fields: Author (use “enter” in between each author if others), Year, Title, Editor (use “enter” in between each author if others), Book title, Place published, Publisher, Pages.

Book with an editor

Structure/template

Surname of editor, Initial(s). (ed.) (Year) Book title in italics. Edition – if available. Place: Publisher.

In a reference list

Fermann, G. (ed.) (1997) International politics of climate change: key issues and critical actors. Oslo: Scandinavian University Press.

In text

(Fermann, 1997)

In EndNote

Add as “Book Edited book”.

Fill out the fields: Editor (use “enter” in between each author if others), Year, Title, Place published, Publisher.

Journal article

Structure/template

Surname, Initial(s). (Year) Article title, Title of journal in italics, volume(number), page. doi 

If the journal article is only available electronically and does not have a doi, write the URL:

Surname, Initial(s). (Year) Article title, Title of journal in italics, volume(number), page. Available at: URL (accessed: date)

In a reference list

Kwan, I. and Mapstone, J. (2004) Visibility aids for pedestrians and cyclists: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials, Accident Analysis & Prevention, 36(3), pp. 305-312. doi: 10.1016/S0001-4575(03)00008-3

In text

(Kwan and Mapstone, 2004)

In EndNote

Article from a printed journal: Add as “Journal article”.

Article retrieved from the Internet: Add as “Electronic article”.

Fill out the fields: Author (use “enter” in between each author if others), Year, Title, Journal, Volume, Issue, Pages, Doi (or URL if retrieved from the Internet, but preferably DOI).

Conference paper

Structure/template

Surname, Initial(s). (Year of Publication) Title of paper, Title of the conference in italics. Place and date of the conference. Place published: Publisher, Page.

In a reference list

Nørvåg, K. (2003) Space-Efficient Support for Temporal Text Indexing in a Document Archive Context, Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries: 7th European Conference, ECDL 2003. Trondheim, August 17-22, 2003. Berlin: Springer, pp. 511-522.

In text

(Nørvåg, 2003)

In EndNote

Add as “Conference Paper”.

Fill out the fields: Author (use “enter” in between each author if others), Year, Title, Conference Name, Conference Location.

Lecture (Handout or published powerpoint)

Structure/template

Surname, Initial(s). Year. Title of lecture, Title of the course in italics. Available at: URL (accessed: date).

In a reference list

Berg, T. 2016. Investeringsanalyse. BØA1100 Bedriftsøkonomi med regnskap. Available at: https://ntnu.blackboard.com (accessed: 5. april 2016).

In text

(Berg, 2016)

Personal communication

To refer to something that has been said in a lecture (not written in handout or powerpoint) it becomes like other personal communication. You can refer to personal communication in the text. You should include the name and title / role of the professor, date of communication and the context in which the communication took place.

Newspaper article

Structure/template

Surname, Initial(s). (Year) Title of article. Title of newspaper in italics, date, page.

In a reference list

Ringen, S. (2004) La ikke Erna Solberg rasere det lokale folkestyre, Aftenposten, March 25, p. 10.

In text

(Ringen, 2004)

In EndNote

Add as “Newspaper article”.

Fill out the fields: Reporter, Year, Title, Newspaper, Pages, Issue date.

Article in an online newspaper

Structure/template

Surname, Initial(s). (Year) Title of article. Title of newspaper in italics, date. Available at: URL (accessed: date).

In a reference list

Ringen, S. (2004) La ikke Erna Solberg rasere det lokale folkestyre, Aftenposten.no. Available at: http://www.aftenposten.no/meninger/kronikk/La-ikke-Erna-Solberg-rasere-det-lokale-folkestyre-512300b.html (accessed: 24 November 2016).

In text

(Ringen, 2004)

In EndNote

Add as “Newspaper article”.

Fill out the fields: Reporter, Year, Title, Newspaper, Pages, Issue date, URL and Access date.

Dissertation and bachelor-/master thesis

Structure/template

Surname, Initial(s). (Year) Title of dissertation or thesis in italics. Type of dissertation/thesis. Institution.

In a reference list

One author:

Hasund, I.K. (2003) The discourse markers like in English and liksom in Norwegian teenage language : A corpus-based, cross-linguistic study. Dr.art. dissertation, University of Bergen.

Many authors and available online:

Berg, S.R. and Kornstad, H. (2013) Prosjektlederes valg av lederrolle i tverrfaglige prosjekter. Masteroppgave, HiST Handelshøyskolen i Trondheim. Available at: http://hdl.handle.net/11250/148928 (accessed: 21 November 2016).

In text

One author:

(Hasund, 2003)

Many authors and available online:

(Berg and Kornstad, 2013, p. 34)

In EndNote

Add as “Thesis”.

Fill out the fields: Author (use “enter” in between each author if others), Year, Title, Place Published, University, Thesis Type.

Public Information (NOU)

Structure/template

NOU Year: number (Year) Title in italics. Place: Publisher.

In a reference list

NOU 2010: 13 (2010) Arbeid for helse: Sykefravær og utstøting I helse- og omsorgssektoren. Oslo: Departementenes servicesenter, Informasjonsforvaltning.

In text

(NOU 2010: 13)

In EndNote

Add as “Government document”.

Fill out the fields: Author (add the NOU name with a comma at the end to avoid inverting), Year, Title, Place Published, Publisher.

Public Information (White papers)

Structure/template

Designation number (session) (Year) Title in italics. Place: Publisher.
Meld. St. number (session) (Year) Title in italics. Place: Publisher.
St. meld. Number (session) (Year) Title in italics. Place: Publisher.

In a reference list

Meld. St. 29 (2012-2013) (2013) Morgendagens omsorg. Oslo: Helse- og omsorgsdepartementet.
Meld. St. 27 (2015-2016) (2013) Digital agenda for Norge: IKT for en enklere hverdag og økt produktivitet. Oslo: Kommunal- og moderniseringsdepartementet. Available at: https://www.regjeringen.no/no/dokumenter/meld.-st.-27-20152016/id2483795/ (accessed: 20 October 2016).
St.meld. 30 (2008-2009) (2009) Klima for forskning. Oslo: Kunnskapsdepartementet.

In text

(Meld. St. 29 (2012-2013))
(St.meld. 30 (2008-2009))

In EndNote

Add as “Government document”.

Fill out the fields: Author (add St. meld nr. with a comma at the end to avoid inverting), Year, Title, Place Published, Publisher.

Law

Structure/template

Printed material:

Short title (Year) Title in italics.

Electronic material:

Short title (Year) Main title in italics. Available at: URL (accessed: date).

In a reference list

Universitets- og høyskoleloven (2005) Lov om universiteter og høyskoler. Available at: https://lovdata.no/dokument/NL/lov/2005-04-01-15 (accessed: 21 November 2016.

In text

(Universitets- og høyskoleloven 2005)

In EndNote

Retrieved from printed sources: Add as “Government document”.

Retrieved from the Internet: Add as “Web page”

Fill out the fields: Author (the law’s short title), Year, Title (the law’s full title), URL (if retrieved from the Internet).

Standard

Structure/template

Name of the authorization organization (Year) Number and title of the standard in italics. Available at: URL (accessed: date).

Example 1: In a reference list

Standard Norge (2002) NS-EN 12216 Solskjerming: terminologi, benevnelser og definisjoner. Available at: https://www.standard.no/no/Nettbutikk/produktkatalogen/Produktpresentasjon/?ProductID=136486 (accessed: 30. March 2017).

In text

(Standard Norge, 2002)

Example 2: In a reference list

SINTEF Byggforsk (2017) 733.109 Forbedring av lydisolasjonen til eksisterende vinduer. Available at: https://www.byggforsk.no/dokument/3257/forbedring_av_lydisolasjonen_til_eksisterende_vinduer (accessed: 30. March 2017).

In text:

(SINTEF Byggforsk, 2017)

In EndNote

Add as “Web page”.

Fill out the fields: Author (If institution name, use a comma at the end to avoid inverting), Year, Title, Access Date, Access Year, URL.

Report

Structure/template

Surname, Initial(s). (Year) The title of the rapport in italics. (The title of the series rapport number). Available at: URL (accessed: date).

In a reference list

Kirkeberg, M. I., Epland, J. and Normann, T. M. (2012) Økonomi og levevilkår for ulike lavinntekstgrupper 2011. (SSB-rapport 08/2012). Oslo: SSB. Available at: http://www.ssb.no/emner/05/01/rapp_okonomi_levekaar/ (accessed: 28 November 2012).

In text

(Kirkeberg, Epland and Normann, 2012)

In EndNote

From the Internet: Add as “Report".

Fill out the fields: Author, Year, Title, Series Title, Report Number, Place Published, Institution, Access Date, URL

Website

Structure/template

Author (Year) Title in italics. Available at: URL (accessed: date).

In a reference list

Fugelsnes, E. (2004) Oppvarmet støv kan gi økte helseplager. Available at: http://www.forskning.no/Artikler/2004/mars/1079517069.32 (accessed 1 April 2004).

In text

(Fugelsnes, 2004)

In EndNote

Add as “Web page”

Fill out the fields: Author (use “enter” in between each author if others, write comma at the end if you write the name of an institution to avoid inverting), Year, Title, Access Date, Access year, URL.

Website without an identified author

Structure/template

Title in italics (Year) Available at: URL (accessed: date).

In a reference list

Investment scams (2016) Available at: https://www.moneysmart.gov.au/scams/investment-scams (accessed: 20.october 2016)

In text

(Investment scams, 2016)

In EndNote

Add as “Web page”

Fill out the fields: Year, Title, Last Update Date, Access year, URL.

Encyclopedia

Structure/template

With an identified author:

Surname, Initial(s). (Year) The title of the article, Title of the encyclopedia in italics. Available at: URL (accessed: date year).

Without an identified author:

Title of the article. (Year of publication) Name of the encyclopedia in italics.  Available at: (URL) (accessed: date year).

In a reference list

With an identified author:

Knudsen, G. (2011) Aksjeselskap, Store Norske Leksikon. Available at: http://snl.no/aksjeselskap (accessed: 15 November 2012).

Without an identified author:

Bedriftsøkonomi. (2016) Wikipedia. Available at: http://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bedriftsøkonomi (accessed: 20 November 2016).

In text

With an identified author:

(Knudsen, 2011)

Without an identified author:

(Bedriftsøkonomi, 2016)

In EndNote

Printed: Add as "Encyclopedia"

Fill out the fields: Author, Year, Title, Editor, Encyclopedia Title, City, Publisher.

With an identified author: Add as “Electronic Book Section”

Fill out the fields: Author, Year, Title, Book Title, URL and Access Date.

Without an identified author: Add as “Web Page”

Fill out the fields: Author (the title of the article), Year, Title (the name of the encyclopedia), URL.

Blog post

Structure/template

Surname, Initial(s). (Year) Title of the blogpost, Title of the blog in italics, date. Available at: URL (accessed: date).

In a reference list

Chaffey, P. (2016) Flere kommuner sier ja, Chaffeys blogg, November 24. Available at: https://paulchaffey.blogspot.no/2016/11/flere-kommuner-sier-ja.html (accessed: 2 December 2016).

In text

(Chaffey, 2016)

In EndNote

Add as “Blog”

Fill out the fields: Author, Year, Title of Entry, Access year, Date, URL.

Image

Structure/template

Surname, Initial (s). (Year) Title of the picture in italics [medium]. Available at museum / gallery etc., city, inventory number.

In a reference list

Tiedemand, A. (1845) Norsk juleskikk [watercolor]. Available at the National Museum, visual arts collections, Oslo, NG.K&H.B.04476.

In text

(Tiedemand, 1845)

In EndNote

Add as “Artwork”

Fill out the fields: Artist, Year, Title, Description (her legges all info om museum/galleri etc., by, inventarnummer), Type of Work.

Digital image

Structure/template

Surname, N. (Year) Title of the image in italics [medium]. Available at: URL (access: date).
Title of the image in italics (Year) [medium]. Available at URL (access: date).

Example 1: In a reference list

Pushwagner, H. (1973-93). Selvportrett [digitized painting]. Available at: http://www.pushwagner.no/galleri/kunst/SELVPORTRETT (access: 30. March 2017.)

Example 1: In text

(Pushwagner, 1973-93)

Example 2: In a reference list

Nye Moholt 50/50 og gamle Moholt (2017) [digital photography]. Available at: https://arkitektur-n.no/artikler/et-gjennombrudd-for-massivtre (Access: 30. March 2017.)

Example 2: In text

(Nye Moholt 50/50 og gamle Moholt, 2017)

In EndNote

Add as “Artwork”

Fill out the fields: Artist, Year, Title, Description (info about museum / gallery etc., city, inventory number), Type of Work, URL, Access date.

 

Online video

Structure/template

Organization/Surname, Initial (s) (Year) Title in italics. Available at: URL (accessed: date).

In a reference list

NTNU (2017) The Waterpower laboratory since 1917. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kCYbmg6T2Rg (accessed: 24. oktober 2017).

In text

(NTNU 2017)

In EndNote

Add as “Webpage”

Fill out the fields: Author, Year, Title, Access Date, Access Year, URL.

Examples of a reference list in Harvard style

Bedriftsøkonomi. (2016) Wikipedia. Available at: http://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bedriftsøkonomi (accessed: 20 November 2016)
Beizer, J.L. and Timiras, M.L. (1994) Pharmacology and drug management in the elderly, in Timiras, P.S. (ed.) Physiological basis of aging and geriatrics. 2nd edn. Boca Raton: CRC Press, pp. 279-284.
Chaffey, P. (2016) Flere kommuner sier ja, Chaffeys blogg, November 24. Available at: https://paulchaffey.blogspot.no/2016/11/flere-kommuner-sier-ja.html (accessed: 2 December 2016).
Dybvig, D.D. and Dybvig, M. (2003) Det tenkende mennesket: filosofi- og vitenskapshistorie med vitenskapsteori. 2nd edn. Trondheim: Tapir akademisk forlag.
Fugelsnes, E. (2004) Oppvarmet støv kan gi økte helseplager. Available at: http://www.forskning.no/Artikler/2004/mars/1079517069.32 (accessed 1 April 2004).
Kirkeberg, M.I., Epland, J. and Normann, T.M. (2012) Økonomi og levevilkår for ulike lavinntekstgrupper 2011. Vol. 2012/08. SSB-rapport. Available at: http://www.ssb.no/emner/05/01/rapp_okonomi_levekaar/ (accessed: 28 November 2012).
Knudsen, G. (2011) Aksjeselskap, Store Norske Leksikon. Available at: http://snl.no/aksjeselskap (accessed: 15 November 2012).
Kwan, I. and Mapstone, J. (2004) Visibility aids for pedestrians and cyclists: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials, Accident Analysis & Prevention, 36(3), pp. 305-312. doi: 10.1016/S0001-4575(03)00008-3
Meld. St. 27 (2015-2016) (2013) Digital agenda for Norge: IKT for en enklere hverdag og økt produktivitet. Oslo: Kommunal- og moderniseringsdepartementet. Available at: https://www.regjeringen.no/no/dokumenter/meld.-st.-27-20152016/id2483795/ (accessed: 20 October 2016).
NOU 2010: 13 (2010) Arbeid for helse: Sykefravær og utstøting I helse- og omsorgssektoren. Oslo: Departementenes servicesenter, Informasjonsforvaltning.
NTNU (2017) The Waterpower laboratory since 1917. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kCYbmg6T2Rg (accessed: 24. oktober 2017).
Nørvåg, K. (2003) Space-Efficient Support for Temporal Text Indexing in a Document Archive Context, Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries: 7th European Conference, ECDL 2003. Trondheim, August 17-22, 2003. Berlin: Springer, pp. 511-522.
Ringen, S. (2004) La ikke Erna Solberg rasere det lokale folkestyre, Aftenposten, March 25, p. 10.
Ringve botaniske hage (2016) Available at: https://www.ntnu.no/museum/ringve-botaniske-hage (accessed: 20 Oktober 2016).
Universitets- og høyskoleloven (2005) Lov om universiteter og høyskoler. Available at: https://lovdata.no/dokument/NL/lov/2005-04-01-15 (accessed: 21 November 2016.
Singh, J.P. (2010) Globalized arts: The entertainment economy and cultural identity. Columbia: Columbia University Press.

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