5 Grammar

5 Grammar


Verbs

Past tense (preterite)

We use past tense when we want to describe something that has already happened at a certain time in the past (e.g. i går - yesterday):

Ken kjøpte ei jakke i går.


A. The regular verbs are divided into four groups:

Group 1: The verbs add the ending -et.
In this group you will find many verbs with two consonants in front of the infinitive -e and some verbs with t, g, and d:

Infinitive: å snakke speak/talk å vaske wash å lage make
Past tense:  snakket vasket laget


Group 2: The verbs add the ending -te.
Many verbs with one consonant and some with a double consonant belong in this group:

Infinitive: å kjøpe buy å spise eat å begynne begin
Past tense:  kjøpte spiste begynte


Group 3: The verbs add the ending -de.
Some verbs with v and ei belong in this group:

Infinitive: å prøve try å greie manage å leie rent
Past tense:  prøvde greide leide


Group 4: The verbs add the ending -dde.
Many verbs ending in another vowel than -e belong in group 4:

Infinitive: å bety mean å bo live å nå reach
Past tense:  betydde bodde nådde


B. The irregular verbs have other forms. In most cases they change vowel in the past tense:

Infinitive: å dra go/travel å drikke drink å finne find
Past tense: dro drakk fant


Some other irregular verbs in chapter 5:

Infinitive Past tense
å bli become ble
å fortelle  tell fortalte
å gå walk gikk
å hjelpe help hjalp
å møte meet møtte
å si say sa
å sitte sit satt
å spørre ask spurte
å stå stand sto(d)
å ta take tok
å treffe meet traff
å ville want/wish ville
å være be var


More irregular verbs: See Chapter 6.

Quizlet


Adjectives

Other patterns

Adjectives ending in -el and -en, like gammel (old) and sulten (hungry) do not follow the main pattern for adjectives. One -e disappears when adding the plural -e. In addition, adjectives with a double consonant drop one consonant in the plural form:

Attributive form

Singular Plural
Masc. Fem. Neut.  
en gammel bil  ei gammel veske et gammelt bord gamle biler/vesker/bord
an old car an old handbag an old table old cars/handbags/tables
en sulten gutt ei sulten jente et sultent barn sultne gutter/jenter/barn
a hungry boy a hungry girl a hungry child hungry boys/girls/children


Predicative form

Singular Plural
Masc. Fem. Neut.  
Bilen er gammel. Veska er gammel. Bordet er gammelt. Bilene/veskene/bordene er gamle.
The car is old. The handbag is old. The table is old. The cars/handbags/tables are old.
Gutten er sulten. Jenta er sulten. Barnet er sultent. Guttene/jentene/barna er sultne.
The boy is hungry. The girl is hungry. The child is hungry. The boys/girls/children are hungry.


Adjectives in combination with the verb to look

The expression to look + adjective (He looks old) is in Norwegian constructed by the verb å se + adjective + (the adverb) ut.
The adjectives follow the pattern described under Predicative form in Chapter 3, 4 and 5. Below this is demonstrated with the adjectives fin (here: nice) and ny (new).

Singular Plural
Masc. Fem. Neut.  
Bilen ser fin ut. Boka ser fin ut. Huset ser fint ut. Bilene ser fine ut.
The car looks nice. The book looks nice. The house looks nice. The cars look nice.
Bilen ser ny ut. Boka ser ny ut. Huset ser nytt ut. Bilene ser nye ut.
The car looks new. The book looks new. The house looks new. The cars look new.

Some central time expressions

Past Present Future
i går yesterday i dag today i morgen tomorrow
(i) forrige uke last week now neste uke next week
i fjor last year   om in
for – siden ago    

 

Ken kom til Trondheim for to måneder siden.
bor han på Moholt.
Om to dager skal han reise til Oslo.

Words for quantities 

Mange (many) and noen (some) are used together with countable nouns:

Ken kjøpte mange CDer.
Peter og Frank snakket med noen studenter.


Mye (much/a lot of) is used together with uncountable (mass) nouns:

Peter drikker mye kaffe.