11 Grammar

11 Grammar


FORDI - DERFOR

(because – therefore)

The use of fordi and derfor might seem a bit confusing.

Fordi

Fordi indicates reason. It is a subordinating conjunction and starts a subordinate clause:

Han rydder fordi dokka liker å ha det ryddig.
He cleans up because the doll likes it to be tidy.  
Barna klapper fordi de liker forestillingen.
The children clap their hands because they like the show. 
or 
Fordi dokka liker å ha det ryddig, rydder han.
Because the doll likes it to be tidy, he cleans up.  
Fordi de liker forestillingen, klapper barna.
Because they like the show, the children clap their hands.  


Derfor

Derfor indicates consequence and is an adverb. Derfor is followed by the verb:

Dokka liker å ha det ryddig. Derfor rydder han.
The doll likes it to be tidy. Therefore, he cleans up.  
Barna liker forestillingen. Derfor klapper de.
The children like the show. Therefore, they clap their hands.  

Different types of words sometimes have the same form and are, therefore, a bit confusing. The form is one of these:

1) = then, afterwards

This type of is an adverb.

Etter lunsj dro vi til Akershus festning. gikk vi til Rådhuset.
After lunch we went to Akershus fortress. Then we went to the City Hall.  


2) = so, very

This type of is also an adverb. It is normally placed in front of adjectives:

Det var interessant på Vikingskipshuset.
It was so interesting at the Viking Ship Museum.  


3) = so, for that reason

This type of is a conjunction. The conjunction is followed by a main clause:

Peter har ikke møtt Evas familie før, han er litt nervøs.
Peter has not met Eva's family before, so he is a bit nervous.  


4) = saw

can also be the past tense of the verb å se (to see):

Vi et stykke av Henrik Ibsen.  We saw a play by Henrik Ibsen.  

SHORT ANSWERS

In English you might answer questions like this: Yes, I have. No, I haven't. Yes, I do. No, I don't, etc.

In Norwegian you make short answers in the following ways:

1) To answer questions starting with har (has/have) and er (am/is/are) you use har and er in the answer:

Har du ei fiskestang?
Do you have a fishing rod?  
Ja, det har jeg. Nei, det har jeg ikke.
Yes, I have. No, I haven't.  
Er du norsk?
Are you Norwegian?  
Ja, det er jeg. Nei, det er jeg ikke.
Yes, I am. No, I'm not.  


2) To answer questions starting with modal verbs you use the modal verb in the answer:

Kan vi gå på kino?
Can we go to the cinema?  
Ja, det kan vi. Nei, det kan vi ikke.
Yes, we can. No, we can't.  
Skal du gå på konserten?
Are you going to the concert?  
Ja, det skal jeg. Nei, det skal jeg ikke.
Yes, I am. No, I'm not. 
Vil du se byen?
Do you want to see the city?  
Ja, det vil jeg. Nei, det vil jeg ikke.
Yes, I do. No, I don't.  
du ringe ham?
Do you have to call him?  
Ja, det jeg. Nei, det jeg ikke.
Yes, I do. No, I don't.  


3) When the questions contain other verbs than the ones mentioned in 1) and 2) you use gjør (do/does) in your answer:

Liker du opera?
Do you like opera?  
Ja, det gjør jeg. Nei, det gjør jeg ikke.
Yes, I do. No, I don't.  
Leser du ei bok?
Are you reading a book?  
Ja, det gjør jeg. Nei, det gjør jeg ikke.
Yes, I am. No, I'm not.  
Snakker du norsk?
Do you speak Norwegian?  
Ja, det gjør jeg. Nei, det gjør jeg ikke.
Yes, I do. No, I don't.  


Note the following:

When the subject in the questions is det (it) or den (it) the verb in the short answer is followed by det or den:

Er det kaldt?
Is it cold?  
Ja, det er det. Nei, det er det ikke.
Yes, it is. No, it isn't.  
Er den ny?
Is it new?  
Ja, det er den. Nei, det er den ikke.
Yes, it is. No, it isn't.  

JA - JO

When a question is negative, jo is used instead of ja for positive answers:

Kommer du ikke fra Oslo?
Are you not from Oslo?  
Jo, det gjør jeg.
Yes, I am.