10 Grammar

10 Grammar

Different types of words sometimes have the same form and are therefore a bit confusing.
The form is one of these:

1) = then, afterwards

This type of is an adverb.

Etter lunsj dro vi til Akershus festning. gikk vi til Rådhuset.
After lunch we went to Akershus fortress. Then we went to the City Hall.

2) = so, very

This type of is also an adverb. It is normally placed in front of adjectives:

Det var interessant på Vikingskipshuset.
It was so interesting at the Viking Ship Museum.

3) = so, for that reason

This type of is a conjunction. The conjunction is followed by a main clause:

Peter har ikke møtt Evas familie før, han er litt nervøs.
Peter has not met Eva's family before, so he is a bit nervous.

4) = saw

can also be the past tense of the verb å se (to see):

Vi et stykke av Henrik Ibsen.
We saw a piece by Henrik Ibsen.

Prepositions

More about prepositions in connection with place:

Bak (behind), foran (in front of), i (in), (on), over (over), under (under) and ved siden av (next to) are typical prepositions in connection with place.

In the following we will have a closer look at the difference between i and and in addition explain the use of two other prepositions; til (to) and hos (at).

I

I is used when something is placed inside something, within borders or walls:

Peter har vondt i halsen.
Peter has a sore throat.
Jakka ligger i kofferten. 
The jacket is in the suitcase.
Koppene står i skapet.
The cups are in the cupboard.
Studentene sitter i klasserommet.
The students are in the classroom.

I is also used together with:

- continents: i Europa, i Asia
- countries and states: i Norge, i Kina, i Texas
- counties: i Sør-Trøndelag, i Nord-Trøndelag
- the following Norwegian regions: i Nord-Norge, i Midt-Norge
- municipalities: i Trondheim, i Malvik
- cities: i Trondheim, i Oslo, i Beijing
- street names/addresses: i Prinsens gate, i Herman Kragsvei 22

is often used to indicate that something is on top of something else:

Boka ligger bordet.
The book is on the table.

is also used in the following connections:

skolen at school
kino, teater at the cinema, theatre
restaurant, kafé in/at a restaurant, café
biblioteket at the library
jobb/arbeid at work
(ved) universitetet at the university

In the following connections i is also used:

på/i butikken in/at the shop
på/i kjøkkenet, stua in the kitchen, living room
på/i badet, soverommet in the bathroom, bedroom

is also used together with

- islands: Grønland (When the island is a state we use i: i Irland. Sometimes we can use both: på/i Sri Lanka.)
- the following Norwegian regions: Vestlandet, Sørlandet, Østlandet
- many inland cities in Norway: Røros, Lillehammer
- many names of places: Lade, Moholt, Dragvoll

It is often difficult to explain the use of i and together with Norwegian names of places. The topography or even the name itself often decides the preposition, but there are lots of exceptions and also local differences.

TIL

Til is the most frequent preposition when there is some kind of movement:

Peter skal reise til Tyskland snart.
Peter is going to Germany soon.
Skal du dra til Dragvoll i dag?
Are you going to Dragvoll today?

HOS

We use hos in front of names and occupational groups.

Peter skal på fest hjemme hos Eva.
Peter is going to a party at Eva's place.
Peter er hos politiet for å hente passet sitt.
Peter is at the police to pick up his passport.

When involving movement, we use til:

Peter må dra til legen.
Peter has to go to the doctor's.
Han skal gå til politiet og hente passet sitt.
He is going to the police to pick up his passport.

Comma rules

1) We always use a comma in front of men (but):

Anna bor i Trondheim, men hun kommer fra Italia.
Anna lives in Trondheim, but she comes from Italy.

2) We use a comma in front of the conjunctions og (and), for (because) and (so) when the following sentence is a complete main clause:

Han har bodd i Norge i tre måneder, og han jobber på NTNU.
He has lived in Norway for three months, and he works at NTNU.
But:
Han har bodd i Norge i tre måneder og jobber ved NTNU.
He has lived in Norway for three months and works at NTNU.

3) We use a comma before and after a parenthetical clause:

Peter, som kommer fra Tyskland, jobber på NTNU.
Peter, who comes from Germany, works at NTNU.

4) We always use commas by enumeration:

Ken spiser vanligvis kylling, laks, pasta, ris og grønnsaker til middag.
Ken usually has chicken, salmon, pasta, rice and vegetables for dinner.

5) We use a comma after the subordinate clause when it is placed in front of the main clause:

Hvis Eva hjelper ham, blir Peter glad.
If Eva helps him, Peter will be happy.

6) We use a comma after direct speech:

«Vil du ha hjelp», spør Eva.
«Would you like some help», Eva asks.