# TKP4100 - Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer

### Examination arrangement

Examination arrangement: School exam

Evaluation Weighting Duration Grade deviation Examination aids
School exam 100/100 4 hours D

### Course content

Fluid flow and heat transfer play a key role in engineering process design. Many similarities exist in how entering feed material is modified or processed into final products in chemical and biological processing industries. For example, the flow of liquidized biomethane in a pipe and milk flow in a dairy plant is treated using the same theoretical flow principles. Similarly, heat transfer is equally vital in producing materials, chemicals, and in many biological processes.

The course consists fundamental fluid mechanics, fluid flow and heat transfer.During the semester, the theory will be applied to relevant (bio)chemical, environmental and material engineering problems.

During fluid mechanics and fluid flow part an introduction to statics and forces in motionless fluids. Further, force balances and potential flow is described, the Euler and Bernoulli equations are deduced and used in examples. The viscosity concept and friction are introduced in practical fluid flow calculations for pipes, valves, and flow meters in incompressible media. Compressible fluid flow in pipes and nozzles is treated and equations for critical, sub- and supersonic flow are developed. Introduction to Navier Stokes’ equation and applications in simple flow problems.

We start with Fourier's law for conduction in planar and cylindrical coordinates and for single or multiple layers in the heat transfer part. Convective heat transfer is introduced, coupled with conduction, and heat transfer coefficients are defined for various geometries. Empirical correlations for forced convection inside and outside various geometries are discussed and used in examples. Their basis in the dimensional analysis is developed. Heat transfer based on natural convection, boiling, and condensation is discussed, and correlations are presented. Introduction to radiative heat transfer is given, and the concept of view factor is introduced. An equation describing the radiative heat transfer between two bodies is developed and used for simple geometries. Furthermore, an introduction to radiative heat transport in gases is given. Unsteady-state heat transfer is introduced and applied when the lump-capacity-method or semi-infinite solids approach can be used.

The heat transfer theory is used throughout the semester to solve heat transfer problems in industrially relevant applications, like high-temperature reactors and heat exchangers.

Relevance to sustainability. The development of energy-efficient chemical engineering processes is an important part of sustainable development in the Norwegian process industry. Several of the topics in the course are directly relevant for sustainability development in the industry. For example, the design of heat exchangers allows efficient recovery of heat. The choice of materials, the use of insulation and the design of the process unit help to minimize by heat loss. Further, for example calculation of pump power, head loss or pressure drops for fluid flows, whereby choosing regions of operations of flow processes will contribute to effective energy utilization.

### Learning outcome

The course will give the student knowledge of

• Hydrostatic pressure, pressure force calculations
• The basis for and the development of the Euler and Bernoulli equations.
• pressure drop, friction loss, and velocities in pipe networks for both incompressible and compressible flows.
• Friction and pressure loss at boundary layer flow in ducts and on external surfaces.
• Boundary layer flow, laminar and turbulent flow.
• Basic heat transfer mechanisms:
• Heat transfer by conduction in solids for stationary and transient conditions.
• Heat transfer by convection in duct current and on external surfaces.
• Heat transfer by boiling and condensation.

After completing the course, the student should be able to (Skills):

• Apply power balances to control volumes,
• Calculate pressure drop, friction loss and speeds in pipeline networks for both incompressible and compressible fluids. Evaluate flow states.
• Calculate hydrostatic pressure, pressure forces
• Calculate major &minor losses in pipe flow, pump and turbine output
• Apply Navier Stokes’ equation for simple fluid flows-
• Calculate heat transfer coefficients and total heat transfer numbers for planar, cylindrical, and spherical geometry.
• Calculate heat transfer by radiation for simple and more complicated geometries (reactors).
• Calculate radiation and absorption in gases.
• Identify when one can neglect heat transfer resistance or use the "semi-infinite solid" approach to calculate the transient heat transport and temperatures.
• use the presented transient heat transfer methods to calculate the heat transfer or the relevant temperatures in non-stationary systems.
• Size selected heat exchanger types.
• Use programming in Python to solve simple heat transfer problems.

After completing the course, the student should have the following general competence:

• Basic competence of calculating mass and energy balances around control volumes
• Understanding flow states and flow through pipes and other geometries
• Basic competence of calculating pump or turbine work
• Basic competence to understand how heat transport affects the design of industrial processes
• Understanding that heat transport and the design of heat exchangers are important in the design of energy-efficient processes and process units. Furthermore, the students should understand that energy efficiency contributes to the development of sustainable process industry.
• Skills in analyzing and calculating heat transfer in complex problems and heat engineering equipment.

### Learning methods and activities

Problem-based activities and lectures with worked through examples. To get access to the exam, students must pass 8 out of 13 compulsory exercises, and at least two of them must be exercises where Python is used.

The expected weekly workload for this course is 6 hours of lecture, 2 hours with exercises, and 5 hours of self-study. The course is lectured in Norwegian.

• Exercises

### Further on evaluation

If there is a re-sit examination, the examination form may change from written to oral.

### Specific conditions

Compulsory activities from previous semester may be approved by the department.

### Course materials

C. Geankoplis: Transport processes and unit operations, 4 ed., Prentice-Hall, 2003.

### Credit reductions

Course code Reduction From To
SIK2005 7.5
TMAK2007 7.5 AUTUMN 2018
TMT4206 7.5 AUTUMN 2019
KP3150 7.5 AUTUMN 2020
More on the course

No

Facts

Version: 1
Credits:  7.5 SP
Study level: Intermediate course, level II

Coursework

Term no.: 1
Teaching semester:  SPRING 2023

Language of instruction: Norwegian

Location: Trondheim

Subject area(s)
• Technological subjects
Contact information
Course coordinator: Lecturer(s):

Department of Chemical Engineering

# Examination

#### Examination arrangement: School exam

Term Status code Evaluation Weighting Examination aids Date Time Examination system
Spring ORD School exam 100/100
Summer UTS School exam 100/100
• * The location (room) for a written examination is published 3 days before examination date. If more than one room is listed, you will find your room at Studentweb.
Examination

For more information regarding registration for examination and examination procedures, see "Innsida - Exams"

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