Recycling and refining

Recycling and refining

– Research Domain 3

Recycling and refining_text

In refining and recycling, impurities is the tail that wags the dog. Increased recycling of products with varying alloy composition adds to this complexity.

The focus in this research domain will be to describe the thermodynamics and kinetics of oxidative refining steps and dross formation with respect to minor- and trace element presence. Another issue is the recovery of by-products and waste, salts or oxides with or without residual metal contents. The focus will be on waste avoidance, recovery of valuables, and re-use of waste streams within and across sectors.


  • Generate fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic data of the oxidation and refining reactions.
  • Implement models, based on experimental data, to support the prediction of refining kinetics, efficiencies and yields.
  • Develop recovery processes for waste and/or find new applications for by-products and waste materials.


Students at RD3


Post Doctorial

Kai Erik Ekstrøm. Photo Kai Erik Ekstrøm

Recycling and Refining of Metallurgical Waste Streams

Jan 2017 - Des 2018



Artur Kadyba. Photo Artur Kadyba

Waste stream

March 2019 - May 2021



PhD Candidates

Cathrine Kyung Won. PhotoCathrine Kyung Won

Dross Formation in Al Alloys

Aug 2018 - Nov 2022



Erlend Lunnan Bjørnstad. PhotoErlend Lunnan Bjørnstad

Si Refining

Aug 2016 - Aug 2021



RD3 Leader

RD3 Leader


Anne Kvithyld. Photo

Anne Kvithyld

Senior Research Scientist, SINTEF


Metal Production Research Domains