Work Package 1


Autonomous ferry in Trondheim. Two students on a ferry. AutoRemote. Photo

Our objective is to develop perception and decision-making systems that will enable MASS to accomplish their mission, including fall-backs for extraordinary events.

This WP will solve open problems in the development of technology for solutions to the use cases, and will provide benchmarking solutions and data sets. The work in WP1 can be divided into two main tasks, covering the perception side and the actuation/decision-making side of MASS technology.  The main research tasks are:

  • Task 1.1, which covers SITAW and sensor fusion and will provide the autonomous decision-making processes with information that is largely absent in current systems. A long-term research focus is maritime SLAM and extended object tracking which currently are at low TRL. 
  • Task 1.2, which provides integration of SITAW information in automatic control systems. A long-term research focus is autonomous decision making, developed in an optimal control and AI framework and supported by low-level control algorithms with the reliability and resilience required in MASS technology.



PhD/PD projects

PhD projects


  • Non-GNSS localization for USVs (aka SLAM), Henrik Dobbe Flemmen
  • Multi-sensor object detection and classification, Emil Martens
  • Collision avoidance, Daniel Menges
  • Docking and rendevous for USVs, Simon Lexau


Postdoc research

  • Risk-based COLAV/anti-grounding, Trym Tengesdal


Recent publications

Recent publications

Brekke, Edmund Førland; Eide, Egil; Eriksen, Bjørn-Olav Holtung; Wilthil, Erik Falmår; Breivik, Morten; Skjellaug, Even; Helgesen, Øystein Kaarstad; Lekkas, Anastasios M.; Martinsen, Andreas Bell; Thyri, Emil Hjelseth; Torben, Tobias Valentin Rye; Veitch, Erik Aleksander; Alsos, Ole Andreas; Johansen, Tor Arne. (2022) "milliAmpere: An Autonomous Ferry Prototype". Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS). Volum 2311.

Helgesen, Øystein Kaarstad; Vasstein, Kjetil; Brekke, Edmund Førland; Stahl, Annette. (2022) "Heterogeneous multi-sensor tracking for an autonomous surface vehicle in a littoral environment". Ocean Engineering. Volum 252.

Hinostroza, Miguel; Lekkas, Anastasios M.. (2022) "A Rudimentary Mission Planning System for Marine Autonomous Surface Ships". IFAC-PapersOnLine.

Martinsen, Andreas Bell; Lekkas, Anastasios; Gros, Sebastien. (2022) "Reinforcement learning-based NMPC for tracking control of ASVs: Theory and experiments". Control Engineering Practice. Volum 120.

Tengesdal, Trym; Johansen, Tor Arne; Grande, Tom Daniel; Blindheim, Simon André Johnsen. (2022) "Ship Collision Avoidance and Anti Grounding Using Parallelized Cost Evaluation in Probabilistic Scenario-Based Model Predictive Control". IEEE Access. Volum 10. s. 111650-111664.

Ødven, Petter K.; Martinsen, Andreas Bell; Lekkas, Anastasios M.. (2022) "Static obstacle avoidance and docking of ASVs using computational geometry and numerical optimal control". IFAC-PapersOnLine.