Equipment

Equipment

 

Electrochemistry

Electrochemical equipment:
Potentiostates, frequency analysers and sweep generators.
Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance and an electrochemical quartz crystal nanobalance.
Digital Acquisition system for FFT ac voltammetry.

Surface characterisation:
Electrochemical STM/AFM microscopy for performing in situ combined electrochemical and surface studies.

Adsorption measurements:
A volumetric PCT (Pressure Composition Temperature) equipment for measurements of hydrogen adsorption in hydride forming materials.

Miscellaneous:
Preparative equipment, vacuum systems, glove boxes, test rigs.

 

 

Extractive metallurgy

Furnaces

  • Crucible furnace, capacity 140 kg aluminium; with gas purging unit etc. for metal refinery studies.
  • Induction furnace, capacity 200 kg of steel, Eloterm.
  • Induction furnace, capacity 20 kg of steel, ASEA.
  • Vacuum induction furnace, capacity 2 kg of steel, Balzer.
  • Plasma pilot facility/furnace, capacity 30 kg/h and plasma temperatures up to ~ 3000°C.
  • Electro-melting furnace, one-phase current, for pilot production of metals.
  • Small induction furnace up to 3600°C.

Water model

  • Laser methods applied to follow fluid flow and gas bubble flow behaviour in light-transparent models representing industrial processes.
  • Pilot scale gas injections (in water).

Miscellaneous

  • High temperature microscope for wettability studies; sessile drop method.
  • 10-15 different vertical ‘versatile’ furnaces, temperatures up to 1600°C.
  • Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer with mass spectrometer.
  • Vacuum/inert gas facility for measurements of diffusion constants, up to 1200°C.
  • Instruments for solubility measurements.

 

Inorganic chemistry

Materials characterization:

  • Thermobalances equipped for
    - Vapour pressure measurements by boiling point and Knudsen effusion method for use up to 2200°C.
    - High temperature gravimetric analysis (max. 2200°C) in controlled atmosphere.
  • Calorimeters
    - Calvet type reaction calorimeters (max. 1120°C).
    - Differential scanning calorimeter (Perkin-Elmer DSC-2) for use up to 727°C.
    - DTA/Reaction calorimeter (max 1200°C).
    - TGA/DTA/DSC for use up to 1600°C.
  • Viscometers
    - Precision viscometers for determination of the viscosity of molten salts, metals and hydrocarbons at high temperatures and pressures.
  • Equipment for the measurement of thermal conductivity of bricks and powders up to 1200°C.
  • Hitatchi S-3400N variable pressure SEM equipped with INCA Energy EDS system and EBSD.
  • Reichert-Jung MeF3A optical microscope for metal and mineralogical applications equipped with computerized image analysis system.
  • Porosimeters
    - Carlo Erba 2000 WS, (pore radius: 0.004-7.5 mm), Macropore 120 (pore radius: 7.5-600 mm).
    - Micromeritics TRISTAR 3000, (pore diameter: 3.5-2100 Å).
  • Rapoport test apparatus (R and D Carbon).
  • Rammability (R and D Carbon).
  • Air Permeability (R and D Carbon).
  • Specific Electrical Resistance (R and D Carbon).
  • Sodium resistance test equipment (carbon).
  • Abrasion tester.
  • Lloyd LR 100K Materials Testing Machine. Yield and strength tests up to 1000°C.
  • Equipment for mechanical characteri¬zation of bending strength, E-modulus, fracture toughness and creep up to 1100°C under controlled atmosphere.
  • Equipment for mechanical 3-point bending of gels (100 g load cell).
  • Thermal dilation measurements in controlled atmosphere up to 1450°C.
  • LECO TC-436 Oxygen and Nitrogen Determinator.
  • Micromeritics AccuPyc 1330 Pycnometer.
  • Haake VT550 viscometer system.
  • Instron 5543 Mechanical testing equipment for ball-on-ring testing method, with 5N, 100N and 1kN load cells.
  • Spray coater: Sono-Tek ExactaCoat FC, xyz tabletop ultrasonic spray system with combined heat/vacuum plate.
  • KSVLMX2 Dip coater for multiple vessel dip coating applications.

Production of carbon materials
Pilot plant scale for mixing anode, cathode or ramming paste including sigma-mixer and vibration press.

Production of ceramic materials

  • Spray pyrolysis unit for large scale production of ceramic powders.
  • Spray dryer.
  • Cold isostatic press (Flow Autoclave Systems).
  • Uniaxial press.
  • Tape Caster (Richard E. Mistler).
  • CARVER Model #12-12H Hydraulic Laboratory Press.

Spectroscopy

  • Bruker IFS 66v Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (4500 100 cm 1). IR microscope.
  • Cary 5, UV-VIS-NIR Spectrometer (57000 - 333 cm-1).

X-ray diffraction equipment

  • Bruker D8 ADVANCE X-ray diffractometer.
    - Cu Ka X-ray tube, variable divergence slit assembly.
    - Theta/theta base goniometer, automatic sample changer, rotating reflection sample stage.
    - Variable antiscatter slit assembly, scintillation detector.
    - VANTEC-I 1D detector with large active area.
    - TC-Wide Range low/high temperature chamber, rotating ceramic sample stage.
  • Siemens D5005 powder X-ray diffracto¬meter, unit A.
    - Primary monochromator (quartz)
    - Cu Ka X-ray tube, automatic antiscatter slit, scintillation detector.
  • Siemens D5005 powder X-ray diffractometer, unit B.
    - Secondary monochromator (graphite), autom. antiscatter and divergence slit, Göbel mirror system, high temp. system HTK 15, pos. sensitive and scintillation detector, grazing incidence attachment, sample changer 40 pos, capillary sample holder.
  • Bruker D8 Focus X-ray diffractometer.
    - Cu Ka X-ray tube, variable divergence slit assembly.
    - Theta/theta base goniometer, automatic sample changer, rotating reflection sample stage.
    - Solid state LynxEye(TM) detector and scintillation detector.

Catalysis

  • Reactor for Ziegler-Natta polymerization with continuous gas flow measurements.
  • Reactors for production of dimethyl dichlorosilane and trichlorosilane both with computerized on-line gas chromatographs for continuous analysis. One of the reactors can be pressurized up to 4 bars.

 

Physical metallurgy

Metallography

  • Specimen preparation and light optical laboratory
    Traditional specimen preparation equipment for cutting, embedding, grinding and mechanical polishing, Struers RotoPol-31 automatic grinding and polishing machine, Struers Lectropol-5 electropolisher, Struers Tenopol-5 for TEM thin foil preparation, 4 optical microscopes attached with digital cameras (Leica MeF4, Leitz MM6, Leitz Metalloplan, Zeiss Axiovert 25), Matuzawa DVK-1S microhardness tester (0.5 – 10 kg), Leica VMHT MOT micro hardness tester (1g – 2000g, anno 2003).
  • Scanning electron microscope (SEM) laboratory
    Zeiss SUPRA 55VP (LVFESEM, 2006), Hitachi S-4300SE (FESEM, 2002), Zeiss, Ultra 55LE, FESEM (2007), Jeol 840 (1989). 3 SEMs are equipped with EDS and EBSD. The laboratory have in-situ sub-stage systems for EBSD tensile and thermo mechanical experiments (heating, and cooling down to -60 °C).
  • Electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA)
    Jeol JXA-8500F field emission gun hyperprobe with 5 wavelength dispersive spectrometers, special crystals for light element analysis, EDS, and cathodoluminescence system (2006). Chemical analysis of submicron volumes.
  • Focused Ion Beam
    FEI, FIB 200 (2008). While the SEM uses a focused beam of electrons to image the sample in the chamber, a FIB instead uses a focused beam of gallium. Focused ion beam, also known as “FIB”, is a technique used particularly in the semiconductor and materials science fields for site-specific analysis, deposition, and specimen preparation for SEM and TEM samples.
  • Transmission electron microscope
    Jeol JEM-2010 (1994) with LaB6 filament equipped with STEM, EDS and Gatan GIF imaging filter.
  • Specimen preparation laboratory for electron microscope
    Agar, Turbo carbon coater.
    Edwards, Sputtercoater S150B (Au, Pt, W).
    JEOL, JEE-4X evaporator.
    Fishione, Plasma cleaner, model 1020.
    Iontech, Ionetcher SEM sample.
    Iontech, Ionetcher TEM sample.
  • X-ray diffraction
    Siemens D5000 X-ray diffractometer equipped with Euler cradle for texture measurements.
  • Furnace laboratory
    5 salt bath furnaces (250°C-590°C), 5 oil bath furnaces (50°C-250°C), 9 fluid bed furnaces (0°C-600°C), 2 muffle furnaces (0°C-800°C, 0°C-1300°C), 2 air circulation furnaces (0°C-650°C), one with large chamber (Multitherm S250/65A, 450mm´450mm´600mm, anno 2003).

Mechanical testing
MTS 810 universal testing machine (10 tons), MTS 880 universal testing machine (10 tons) equipped with 250°C furnace chamber and MTS Teststar control units, shear tester, bend tester, compression tools, formability tools, fatigue and fracture grips, high rate tensile grips, ordinary extensometers and clip gauges for room temperature testing, laser speckle analyzer, dynamic speckle correlation strain analyses.

Metal forming
60 and 100 tons hydraulic presses, equal channel angular pressing tools, hydroforming tools, Marciniak formability tester (used also in MTS 880), ASAME equipment for automatic 3-dimensional strain analysis and measurements. Hot torsion machine, two cold rolling mills.

Casting

  • Small scale solidification laboratory
    3 resistor furnaces (max 1000°C), reometer, Podfa filter for analysing melt quality, Bridgeman furnace (ferro alloys), Seiko differential scanning calorimeter (-150°C - 600°C).
  • Casting laboratory
    ASEA 3830 Hz induction furnace (6.5 liters, max 1700°C), Balzer VSG10 3830Hz vacuum induction furnace (1-2 liters, max 2000°C), induction melt spinner for rapid solidification (5cm3), Marco arc melt spinner for rapid solidification (100cm3).

Welding
(SINTEF but used by Department of Materials Science and Engineering).
Hyperbaric welding equipment, ABB welding robot station, Smitweld TCS 1405 resistor weld simulator, 2 high frequency induction generators (6kW, 12kW), medium frequency generator (50kW), IRC (Instrumented Restrained Cracking) jig, Satoh jig for welding prestrained specimens, Ströhlein TCD (Thermal Conductivity Detection) instrument for hydrogen measurement, mercury based hydrogen analysis apparatus.

Wear testing
Pin on disk -, pin on ring - and pin on plate machines, Struers Microwave abrasive testing machine, water jet erosion machine.

Pressing
ABB hot isostatic press (2000 bar, 2000°C), ABB cold isostatic press (6000 bar), Thermal Technology Inc. hydraulic hot axial press (200kPa).

Solar silicon
Clean room class 10000, Crystalox DS 250 Bridgeman furnace for directional solidification of (solar cell) silicon, saw for cutting silicon ingots, Jandel four points probe for resistivity measurements, Leo Gieken instrument for measurement of lifetime of minority charge carriers, PVScan 6000 instrument for measurement of dislocation densities and detection of grain boundaries, GTSolar LBIC (Light Beam Induced Current) measuring device.