Physics Friday Colloquia

– Spring 2017

The Department of Physics organizes a series of colloquia. Friday's colloquium is open to everyone. If you desire coffee/tea and something sweet, please meet up at 14:00 in the lunchroom D5-175.

Time: Friday at 14:15 - 15:00

Location: Realfagbygget R10

 

Spring 2017

 

12 May 2017 - Thierry Courvoisier (University of Geneva)

"From stars to states"

5 May 2017 -  Gérard Mourou (École Polytechnique at Paris-Saclay)

"Extreme Light laser from Atomic to Subatomic Physics"

28 April 2017 - Anna Stradner (Lund University)

"Concentrated protein solutions: from local dynamics to macroscopic arrest"

24 March 2017 - Jian Min Zuo (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)

"Topological defects in mesoscopic and complex crystals"

 

17 February, 2017 - Darren Roblyer

  Speaker Darren Roblyer , Department of Biomedical Engineering at Boston University   Title Monitoring and Adapting Chemotherapeutic Interventions using Diffuse...
 

Speaker

Darren Roblyer, Department of Biomedical Engineering at Boston University

 

Title

Monitoring and Adapting Chemotherapeutic Interventions using Diffuse Optics

 

Abstract

Despite an ever increasing set of chemotherapeutic and targeted therapies for patients suffering from cancer, individual responses and resistance patterns remain highly variable. Standard-of-care imaging modalities (MRI, PET-CT, etc.) have limited ability to detect response and resistance early and often during treatment due to access, cost, and safety concerns. In order to move towards truly adaptive chemotherapeutic regimens, near real-time in vivo measurements of key response metrics are needed.

Towards this goal, there has been significant interest in chemotherapy monitoring in breast cancer patients using diffuse optical technologies. Multiple groups, including ours, have demonstrated prognostic changes in endogenous chromophores after days, weeks or months of treatment. In order to translate these early findings to the standard of care, it’s necessary to 1. Validate optical signatures of treatment response and resistance in larger patient populations, 2. Screen unexplored treatment timepoints using new, more clinically versatile optical technologies, and 3. Identify causative associations between specific molecular events and non-invasive optical signatures.

In order to meet these challenges, our group is developing a variety of new clinical and preclinical diffuse optical measurement platforms including a new wearable continuous-wave infusion monitor and a portable all-digital frequency-domain Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy (DOS) system to access patients at the point-of-care including in the infusion suite and the doctor’s office. Additionally, in order to explore these rapid and early metabolic changes in a controlled preclinical setting, we are utilizing Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging (SFDI) and intravital multiphoton imaging to track treatment response and explore adaptive therapies in prostate and breast tumor models.

13 January, 2017 - Gerhard A. Holzapfel

  Speaker Gerhard A. Holzapfel , Graz University of Technology and NTNU   Title Actin Networks: Continuum Formulation and Computational Analysis
 

Speaker

Gerhard A. Holzapfel, Graz University of Technology and NTNU

 

Title

Actin Networks: Continuum Formulation and Computational Analysis

 

Friday colloquia Autumn 2016

 

16 December

Vadim Makarov, University of Waterloo, Canada
«Can quantum physics break cryptography's curse?»

16 December

Vadim Makarov, University of Waterloo, Canada
«Can quantum physics break cryptography's curse?»

Abstract

Can quantum physics break cryptography's curse?

The history of cryptography is a history of failures. Stronger ciphers replaced broken ones, to be in turn broken again. Quantum cryptography is offering a hope to end this replacement cycle, for its security premises on the laws of quantum physics and not on limitations of human ingenuity and computing. But, can our nascent quantum technology implement quantum cryptography securely? The talk introduces today's quantum cryptography techniques, then shows how to compromise their security by exploiting imperfections in engineering implementations.

Vadim Makarov is known for studying practical security of quantum cryptography systems. He leads the Quantum hacking lab http://vad1.com/lab at the University of Waterloo, Canada. He was a postdoc at NTNU. He holds dr. ing. degree from NTNU and MSc degree from St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, Russia.

Mon, 13 Feb 2017 10:11:18 +0100

2 December

Asle Sudbø, Department of Physics, NTNU
«About the field that got the physics Nobel prize this year»

2 December

Asle Sudbø, Department of Physics, NTNU
«About the field that got the physics Nobel prize this year»

Abstract

About the field that got the physics Nobel prize this year

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2016  was awarded to Fredrick Duncan Michael Haldane, Princeton University (1/4), John Michael Kosterlitz, Brown University (1/4), and David James Thouless, University of Washington (1/2), "for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter".

In this colloqium, I will explain in simple terms which fundamental ideas underpin this work, and why they are important.

Fri, 03 Feb 2017 15:17:20 +0100

18 November

Dmitriy Anistratov, North Carolina State University​
«Surprisingly Useful Equation: Boltzmann Equation»

18 November

Dmitriy Anistratov, North Carolina State University​
«Surprisingly Useful Equation: Boltzmann Equation»

Abstract

Surprisingly Useful Equation: Boltzmann Equation

Particles are everywhere. There are bunch of them around us. Some of them move freely and collide. The particles influence our world and affect our lives. The photons born in the Sun travel to the Earth, penetrate the atmosphere and make weather. We design machines that use their talents. We need particle energy to get light. They can help doctors to treat people and look inside of a human body. We want to predict weather and control behavior of the machines we build. We need accurate models that describe the complicated and beautiful world with particles starting from their microscopic level up to our macroscopic scale. Boltzmann formulated the equation that can help to make this happen. The Boltzmann equation describes statistical properties of an ensemble of particles and shows evolution of the particle density function. The moments of this function connect the parts of the world at different scales. We can use the Boltzmann equation to model interaction of particles with matter in a variety of physical systems. It works for particles in plasmas, nuclear reactors, semiconductors, etc. Scientists and engineers need this equation. This talk will present what everyone should know about the Boltzmann equation. It will give an introduction in its different applications and describe the main challenges of particle transport simulations.

Fri, 03 Feb 2017 15:17:32 +0100

21 October

Pål Gunnar Ellingsen​, The University Centre in Svalbard
«Aurora Borealis - A natural wonder»

21 October

Pål Gunnar Ellingsen​, The University Centre in Svalbard
«Aurora Borealis - A natural wonder»

Abstract

Aurora Borealis - A natural wonder

The Aurora Borealis has been surrounded by mystery throughout human history, and is still a fascinating physical phenomena today. It was not before the 1900s that we started understanding the underlying physics.  Being a phenomena so closely related to what happens on the Sun, it is one way of indirectly studying the Sun-Earth interaction. We have understood the general processes that generate the aurora, but we are still studying its finer details and how the magnetosphere around our earth reacts to changes in the solar wind. In addition, the increased reliability on electronics and communication requires us to understand the electric and magnetic disturbances generated by it.

This lecture will give an introduction to the mechanisms behind the aurora and the tools used to study these processes, as well as some results.

Fri, 03 Feb 2017 15:17:44 +0100

30 September

Magnus Ullner, Theoretical Chemistry, Lund University
«Polyelectrolytes - The Minefield»

30 September

Magnus Ullner, Theoretical Chemistry, Lund University
«Polyelectrolytes - The Minefield»

Abstract

Polyelectrolytes - The Minefield

Flexible polyelectrolytes can be described as highly charged polymers. It is therefore tempting to reuse the the concepts and theories that have successfully described neutral polymers and just add electrostatic interactions. However, the long-ranged nature of the electrostatic interactions and the presence of counterions break some of the underlying assumptions. Electrostatic persistence length and osmotic pressure are two areas where uncritical application of "common knowledge" has led to both unnecessary controversy and false consensus. Becoming aware of these pitfalls is the first step towards a proper understanding of polyelectrolytes in their own right and Monte Carlo simulation is one of important tools that allow us to peek behind the curtain.

Fri, 03 Feb 2017 15:16:56 +0100

26 August

26 August

This colloquium will be at a slightly unusual time and place: 

Time and place: 12:15 in the lunch room D5-175

Abstract

Prions and amyloids: self-replicating protein pathogens

Recently the prion disease Chronic Wasting Disease was unexpectedly discovered in Norway in reindeer and moose.

Prion diseases are lethal, infectious diseases associated with prion protein (PrP) misfolding. A large number of mammals are susceptible to both sporadic and acquired prion diseases. Prion diseases diseases are infectious. Transmissibility of prions occur through seeded conversion of endogenous normal PrP to misfolded PrP. The process is reminescent of the progression of amyloidosis of which 30 proteins are linked in diverse diseases.

Transmissibility is surprisingly efficient in prion diseases and given the rapid disease progression following initial symptoms the prionoses stand out from other amyloidoses. Several amyloidoses likewise appear to be transmissible under certain circumstances, especially in experimental settings, but with a much slower disease course. In vitro the prion replication process can be mimicked using synthetic PrP. Seeded conversion of various PrP sequences display significantly decreased lag phases demonstrating that nucleation dependent polymerization is a dominating mechanism in the fibrillation process. Different conformational states of PrP within prions appear to dictate the disease phenotype. A major question is what makes a certain prion transmissible and what makes it neurotoxic?

Fri, 03 Feb 2017 15:16:44 +0100